Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001455
UniProt IDP10914
Primary gene name(s)IRF1
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameInterferon regulatory factor 1
Protein functionTranscriptional regulator which displays a remarkable functional diversity in the regulation of cellular responses. These include the regulation of IFN and IFN-inducible genes, host response to viral and bacterial infections, regulation of many genes expressed during hematopoiesis, inflammation, immune responses and cell proliferation and differentiation, regulation of the cell cycle and induction of growth arrest and programmed cell death following DNA damage. Stimulates both innate and acquired immune responses through the activation of specific target genes and can act as a transcriptional activator and repressor regulating target genes by binding to an interferon-stimulated response element, ISRE in their promoters. Its target genes for transcriptional activation activity include: genes involved in anti-viral response, such as IFN-alpha/beta, DDX58/RIG-I, TNFSF10/TRAIL, OAS1/2, PIAS1/GBP, EIF2AK2/PKR and RSAD2/viperin; antibacterial response, such as NOS2/INOS; anti-proliferative response, such as p53/TP53, LOX and CDKN1A; apoptosis, such as BBC3/PUMA, CASP1, CASP7 and CASP8; immune response, such as IL7, IL12A/B and IL15, PTGS2/COX2 and CYBB; DNA damage responses and DNA repair, such as POLQ/POLH; MHC class I expression, such as TAP1, PSMB9/LMP2, PSME1/PA28A, PSME2/PA28B and B2M and MHC class II expression, such as CIITA. Represses genes involved in anti-proliferative response, such as BIRC5/survivin, CCNB1, CCNE1, CDK1, CDK2 and CDK4 and in immune response, such as FOXP3, IL4, ANXA2 and TLR4. Stimulates p53/TP53-dependent transcription through enhanced recruitment of EP300 leading to increased acetylation of p53/TP53. Plays an important role in immune response directly affecting NK maturation and activity, macrophage production of IL12, Th1 development and maturation of CD8+ T-cells. Also implicated in the differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells and in the suppression of regulatory T, Treg cells development. Acts as a tumor suppressor and plays a role not only in antagonism of tumor cell growth but also in stimulating an immune response against tumor cells. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15226432, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15509808, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17516545, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17942705, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18084608, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18497060, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18641303, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19404407, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19851330, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21389130, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22200613, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22367195}.
Subcellular locationNucleus. Cytoplasm. Note=MYD88-associated IRF1 migrates into the nucleus more efficiently than non-MYD88-associated IRF1.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P10914
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
apoptotic process [GO:0006915];
blood coagulation [GO:0007596];
CD8-positive, alpha-beta T cell differentiation [GO:0043374];
cell cycle arrest [GO:0007050];
cellular response to interferon-beta [GO:0035458];
cellular response to mechanical stimulus [GO:0071260];
defense response to virus [GO:0051607];
interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway [GO:0060333];
negative regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0008285];
negative regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation [GO:0045590];
negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045892];
positive regulation of interferon-beta production [GO:0032728];
positive regulation of interleukin-12 biosynthetic process [GO:0045084];
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045893];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
positive regulation of type I interferon production [GO:0032481];
regulation of adaptive immune response [GO:0002819];
regulation of CD8-positive, alpha-beta T cell proliferation [GO:2000564];
regulation of cell cycle [GO:0051726];
regulation of innate immune response [GO:0045088];
regulation of MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway [GO:0034124];
transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0006366];
type I interferon signaling pathway [GO:0060337]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
DNA binding [GO:0003677];
RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0000978];
transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding [GO:0001077]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
nuclear chromatin [GO:0000790];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction109867
Phylogenetic treeP10914
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: numerous RNA and DNA viruses
      Viral life cycle: similar to IFN
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: IFN induction; direct ISG induction
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD32.61784943556895.54001289287953e-141.60575142925924e-12
AZA vs. DISU0.1368792245570290.6459219734433110.960057478314726
AZA vs. IL70.5035822838487860.009078189927996690.304756251190856
AZA vs. SAHA0.1935194543877980.4299230847888490.779727356110615
DISU vs. CD3-2.493449565425491.78880021906025e-104.17405178051303e-09
DISU vs. IL70.3570627632845750.2195566413875910.601908442559755
DISU vs. SAHA0.05917698274106960.8638175195038050.963186475591216
DMSO vs. AZA-0.02659788373791640.8743405531672381
DMSO vs. CD3-2.655125900662996.55031584528842e-151.96967082254032e-13
DMSO vs. DISU-0.165262091182020.5710251853605070.930025594527682
DMSO vs. IL70.5375121833808170.002912861077131850.104550906518482
DMSO vs. SAHA0.2144059635032810.3658826872086250.714157223675448
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.3260118157511620.6004915757885260.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.2507162245280140.1292227740012060.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-2.108552457202633.39487993272769e-106.56880940000057e-09
SAHA vs. CD3-2.447910783454514.63528104788224e-111.06646847926085e-09
SAHA vs. IL7-0.3123813694540990.2026378354738120.435619328569915
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.404197 0.00475227
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat binds 16512786
Vif downregulates 23333304
Nef upregulates 11675348

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04917 Prolactin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05133 Pertussis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05160 Hepatitis C - Homo sapiens (human)