Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001431
UniProt IDP12268
Primary gene name(s)IMPDH2
Synonym gene name(s)IMPD2
Protein nameInosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2
Protein functionCatalyzes the conversion of inosine 5'-phosphate, IMP to xanthosine 5'-phosphate, XMP, the first committed and rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides, and therefore plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth. Could also have a single-stranded nucleic acid-binding activity and could play a role in RNA and/or DNA metabolism. It may also have a role in the development of malignancy and the growth progression of some tumors.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000255|HAMAP-Rule:MF_03156, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14766016}. Nucleus {ECO:0000255|HAMAP-Rule:MF_03156, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14766016}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P12268
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cellular response to interleukin-4 [GO:0071353];
GMP biosynthetic process [GO:0006177];
GTP biosynthetic process [GO:0006183];
lymphocyte proliferation [GO:0046651];
protein homotetramerization [GO:0051289];
purine ribonucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process [GO:0009168];
retina development in camera-type eye [GO:0060041]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
DNA binding [GO:0003677];
IMP dehydrogenase activity [GO:0003938];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
nucleotide binding [GO:0000166];
RNA binding [GO:0003723]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
membrane [GO:0016020];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
peroxisomal membrane [GO:0005778]
Protein-protein interaction109828
Phylogenetic treeP12268
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.692947354746174.59504554295442e-073.84544844105547e-06
AZA vs. DISU-0.06381060121328380.8007994350835790.983438610789082
AZA vs. IL70.408169070243430.03416361851996170.570633544062172
AZA vs. SAHA-0.2371347693155570.3308318361180510.703107996145497
DISU vs. CD3-1.768720914234162.08122644618225e-061.84110372357695e-05
DISU vs. IL70.462695834329390.06645454356883520.342194683015158
DISU vs. SAHA-0.1715456733360130.5565534109844970.854098701632466
DMSO vs. AZA-0.02411773671580660.8853783521364141
DMSO vs. CD3-1.730367986398241.35023227931796e-071.15706765005262e-06
DMSO vs. DISU0.03731616352412130.8783682540768860.987443803738299
DMSO vs. IL70.4397717263221210.01464100890738350.253111478530741
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.2184074812873530.3541183478872410.703521964277433
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.01456218034612090.9813468040531540.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.2033251304058070.2183401402025960.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.277612101389069.02497270555136e-050.000532003963984261
SAHA vs. CD3-1.954051673109348.90833300459803e-089.4942417524252e-07
SAHA vs. IL7-0.647730963191370.008263964518076320.0549920672776893
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.020205 0.928214
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.983 0.916 0.892 0.852 0.857
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00688 Mycophenolate mofetil approved, investigational yes inhibitor
DB01024 Mycophenolic acid approved yes inhibitor
DB00157 NADH nutraceutical unknown unknown
DB00811 Ribavirin approved unknown unknown
DB03070 Selenazole-4-Carboxyamide-Adenine Dinucleotide experimental unknown unknown
DB03948 6-Chloropurine Riboside, 5&,39;-Monophosphate experimental unknown unknown
DB04566 Inosinic Acid experimental unknown unknown
DB06103 VX-148 investigational unknown unknown
DB01033 Mercaptopurine approved unknown Inhibitor

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1B3O X-ray 2.9Å A/B=1-514.
1NF7 X-ray 2.6Å A/B=1-514.
1NFB X-ray 2.9Å A/B=1-514.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat upregulates 23166591

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00230 Purine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00983 Drug metabolism - other enzymes - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)