Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001427
UniProt IDQ12906
Primary gene name(s)ILF3
Synonym gene name(s)DRBF, MPHOSPH4, NF90
Protein nameInterleukin enhancer-binding factor 3
Protein functionMay facilitate double-stranded RNA-regulated gene expression at the level of post-transcription. Can act as a translation inhibitory protein which binds to coding sequences of acid beta-glucosidase, GCase and other mRNAs and functions at the initiation phase of GCase mRNA translation, probably by inhibiting its binding to polysomes. Can regulate protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 activity. May regulate transcription of the IL2 gene during T-cell activation. Can promote the formation of stable DNA-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complexes on DNA. The phosphorylated form at Thr-188 and Thr-315, in concert with EIF2AK2/PKR can inhibit vesicular stomatitis virus, VSV replication, By similarity. {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:7519613, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9442054}.
Subcellular locationNucleus, nucleolus. Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Localizes in the cytoplasm in response to viral dsRNA. The unphosphorylated form is retained in the nucleus by ILF2. Phosphorylation at Thr-188 and Thr-315 causes the dissociation of ILF2 from the ILF2-ILF3 complex resulting in a cytoplasmic sequestration of ILF3. Localized in cytoplasmic mRNP granules containing untranslated mRNAs.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q12906
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
defense response to virus [GO:0051607];
negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045892];
negative regulation of translation [GO:0017148];
negative regulation of viral genome replication [GO:0045071];
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045893];
protein phosphorylation [GO:0006468];
transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006351]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
DNA binding [GO:0003677];
double-stranded RNA binding [GO:0003725];
poly(A RNA binding [GO:0044822];
RNA binding [GO:0003723]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
intracellular ribonucleoprotein complex [GO:0030529];
membrane [GO:0016020];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
nucleolus [GO:0005730];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction109822
Phylogenetic treeQ12906
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.8633247176627130.008841795124953530.0235406352452393
AZA vs. DISU-0.007361206896852030.9767507579576580.997889048290254
AZA vs. IL70.2281346136916270.2338944877338150.990920320206469
AZA vs. SAHA0.00165541138034740.994569998492130.998870616987704
DISU vs. CD3-0.8834988450360260.01605296563058560.0428970756808096
DISU vs. IL70.2263498723264320.3681441723686650.743314508950862
DISU vs. SAHA0.01142001778593210.968695974575270.99375243569695
DMSO vs. AZA0.09537478505313970.5815485333011591
DMSO vs. CD3-0.7791156338555630.01546854961059330.0360342817200538
DMSO vs. DISU0.101072380840870.6782032852359520.955876962847139
DMSO vs. IL70.1400598146251030.4342835235363340.860024653866327
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.09955447793911530.6719548797833030.897786781843686
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.2137859474707290.730802252871210.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.00510116770379380.9752405704387270.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.6288626557683680.05152190052204110.112484010221426
SAHA vs. CD3-0.8851684049732610.01290959323847090.0317888186444045
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2290858354354030.345782944704310.595286901378799
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.2982 0.04091

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.230435 0.108343
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.011 1.024 0.97 0.973 0.959
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2L33 NMR - A=521-600.
3P1X X-ray 1.9Å A/B=520-594.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Rev interacts with 17125513
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 complexes with 23125841
Gag-Pol complexes with 23125841
Vpr downregulates 23874603
Tat inhibited by 17565699
Rev regulated by 21364984
Rev inhibited by 17125513
Pr55(Gag) complexes with 23125841
capsid inhibited by 21364984
Nef complexes with 23125841

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found