Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001416
UniProt IDQ14005
Primary gene name(s)IL16
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein namePro-interleukin-16 [Cleaved into: Interleukin-16
Protein functionInterleukin-16 stimulates a migratory response in CD4+ lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. Primes CD4+ T-cells for IL-2 and IL-15 responsiveness. Also induces T-lymphocyte expression of interleukin 2 receptor. Ligand for CD4.; FUNCTION: Isoform 1 may act as a scaffolding protein that anchors ion channels in the membrane.; FUNCTION: Isoform 3 is involved in cell cycle progression in T-cells. Appears to be involved in transcriptional regulation of SKP2 and is probably part of a transcriptional repression complex on the core promoter of the SKP2 gene. May act as a scaffold for GABPB1, the DNA-binding subunit the GABP transcription factor complex and HDAC3 thus maintaining transcriptional repression and blocking cell cycle progression in resting T-cells.
Subcellular locationInterleukin-16: Secreted.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 1: Cytoplasm {ECO:0000250}.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 3: Cytoplasm. Nucleus.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q14005
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
immune response [GO:0006955];
induction of positive chemotaxis [GO:0050930];
leukocyte chemotaxis [GO:0030595];
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006355];
transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006351];
viral process [GO:0016032]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular region [GO:0005576];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction109816
Phylogenetic treeQ14005
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-3.5854247856712400
AZA vs. DISU-0.4473670408216690.07676211369480960.590222266291186
AZA vs. IL7-0.4063426860786780.03417573160075140.570633544062172
AZA vs. SAHA-0.3661174985645970.133539170138740.465611727724867
DISU vs. CD33.127121368177121.88737914186277e-151.07359823337507e-13
DISU vs. IL70.03144675693733920.9004057373661610.981671743384553
DISU vs. SAHA0.08317438038810740.7753583684385470.937534176086115
DMSO vs. AZA0.008963604621711780.957119756370231
DMSO vs. CD33.582095834684400
DMSO vs. DISU0.4542684510670470.06249003990591410.477423609620826
DMSO vs. IL7-0.4078504519761860.02302368875245580.309618294329412
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.3802280500034740.1067462081247240.38704792501964
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.2849097646661870.6478625772749630.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1296783702258580.4299113912268340.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD33.1855830621429700
SAHA vs. CD33.196172675248321.11022302462516e-166.17382324025871e-15
SAHA vs. IL70.03771887372565970.8768339135913050.95073747793538
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.911533 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.131 1.191 1.232 1.316 1.283
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1I16 NMR - A=1203-1332.
1X6D NMR - A=1103-1208.
5FB8 X-ray 2.0Å C=1224-1323.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 interacts with 8599832
Tat inhibited by 8977168
HIV-1 virus replication enhanced by expression of human gene 19460752

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found