Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001386
UniProt IDQ12891
Primary gene name(s)HYAL2
Synonym gene name(s)LUCA2
Protein nameHyaluronidase-2
Protein functionHydrolyzes high molecular weight hyaluronic acid to produce an intermediate-sized product which is further hydrolyzed by sperm hyaluronidase to give small oligosaccharides. Displays very low levels of activity. Associates with and negatively regulates MST1R. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11296287, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12676986, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9712871}.
Subcellular locationCell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11296287};
Lipid-anchor, GPI-anchor {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11296287}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q12891
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
carbohydrate metabolic process [GO:0005975];
cartilage development [GO:0051216];
cellular response to fibroblast growth factor stimulus [GO:0044344];
cellular response to interleukin-1 [GO:0071347];
cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus [GO:0071560];
cellular response to tumor necrosis factor [GO:0071356];
cellular response to UV-B [GO:0071493];
defense response to virus [GO:0051607];
fusion of virus membrane with host plasma membrane [GO:0019064];
glycosaminoglycan catabolic process [GO:0006027];
hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation [GO:0002244];
hyaluronan catabolic process [GO:0030214];
kidney development [GO:0001822];
monocyte activation [GO:0042117];
multicellular organism aging [GO:0010259];
multicellular organismal iron ion homeostasis [GO:0060586];
negative regulation of cell growth [GO:0030308];
negative regulation of fibroblast migration [GO:0010764];
negative regulation of MAP kinase activity [GO:0043407];
negative regulation of protein kinase B signaling [GO:0051898];
negative regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity [GO:0061099];
positive regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:2001238];
positive regulation of inflammatory response [GO:0050729];
positive regulation of interleukin-6 secretion [GO:2000778];
positive regulation of interleukin-8 secretion [GO:2000484];
positive regulation of protein import into nucleus [GO:0042307];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
positive regulation of urine volume [GO:0035810];
renal water absorption [GO:0070295];
response to antibiotic [GO:0046677];
response to reactive oxygen species [GO:0000302];
response to virus [GO:0009615];
skeletal system morphogenesis [GO:0048705];
transformation of host cell by virus [GO:0019087];
viral entry into host cell [GO:0046718]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
enzyme binding [GO:0019899];
hyaluronic acid binding [GO:0005540];
hyaluronoglucuronidase activity [GO:0033906];
hyalurononglucosaminidase activity [GO:0004415];
receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor activity [GO:0030294];
receptor tyrosine kinase binding [GO:0030971];
RNA polymerase II transcription coactivator activity [GO:0001105];
transforming growth factor beta binding [GO:0050431];
virus receptor activity [GO:0001618]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
anchored component of external side of plasma membrane [GO:0031362];
anchored component of plasma membrane [GO:0046658];
apical plasma membrane [GO:0016324];
cell surface [GO:0009986];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytoplasmic, membrane-bounded vesicle [GO:0016023];
cytoplasmic vesicle [GO:0031410];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
endocytic vesicle [GO:0030139];
endoplasmic reticulum [GO:0005783];
Golgi membrane [GO:0000139];
lysosome [GO:0005764];
membrane raft [GO:0045121];
microvillus [GO:0005902];
perinuclear region of cytoplasm [GO:0048471];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
RNA polymerase II transcription factor complex [GO:0090575]
Protein-protein interaction114239
Phylogenetic treeQ12891
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.569765495599533.63067457320732e-062.48960542162787e-05
AZA vs. DISU-0.1817790482097450.4906201009853120.932344706809165
AZA vs. IL70.1792985095209020.3831281689458190.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.09636690314272530.7056086200233440.91681931791089
DISU vs. CD3-1.762185486465322.77870308718065e-062.38531721732124e-05
DISU vs. IL70.3511577842085650.1794160682927160.54827152099976
DISU vs. SAHA0.279398303729290.3518352327855590.729353968502101
DMSO vs. AZA-0.02382714194679580.8971570709891651
DMSO vs. CD3-1.60716712771971.22701415805615e-068.65806477335639e-06
DMSO vs. DISU0.1548144444892530.5428052244552860.921839163510307
DMSO vs. IL70.2114901190732460.272634417341340.769224001763184
DMSO vs. SAHA0.115271330511580.6398389979402110.884160382878577
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.002335481936085880.9970233781272730.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.02698011179222340.8801096577896140.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.384172227740712.84821846974204e-050.00019452286812153
SAHA vs. CD3-1.496618538335963.91259863424809e-050.000209533978031694
SAHA vs. IL7-0.08499982570434120.7371770654441480.880588157184879
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.113296 0.567509
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00531 Glycosaminoglycan degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)