Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001357
UniProt IDP61978
Primary gene name(s)HNRNPK
Synonym gene name(s)HNRPK
Protein nameHeterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K
Protein functionOne of the major pre-mRNA-binding proteins. Binds tenaciously to poly(C sequences. Likely to play a role in the nuclear metabolism of hnRNAs, particularly for pre-mRNAs that contain cytidine-rich sequences. Can also bind poly(C single-stranded DNA. Plays an important role in p53/TP53 response to DNA damage, acting at the level of both transcription activation and repression. When sumoylated, acts as a transcriptional coactivator of p53/TP53, playing a role in p21/CDKN1A and 14-3-3 sigma/SFN induction, By similarity. As far as transcription repression is concerned, acts by interacting with long intergenic RNA p21, lincRNA-p21, a non-coding RNA induced by p53/TP53. This interaction is necessary for the induction of apoptosis, but not cell cycle arrest. {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16360036, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20673990, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22825850}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:1729596}. Nucleus, nucleoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16360036, ECO:0000269|PubMed:1729596, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18775702, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22721921}. Cell projection, podosome {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22721921}. Note=Recruited to p53/TP53-responsive promoters, in the presence of functional p53/TP53, PubMed:16360036. In case of ASFV infection, there is a shift in the localization which becomes predominantly nuclear, PubMed:18775702.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P61978
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
gene expression [GO:0010467];
mRNA splicing, via spliceosome [GO:0000398];
negative regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043066];
negative regulation of mRNA splicing, via spliceosome [GO:0048025];
positive regulation of low-density lipoprotein particle receptor biosynthetic process [GO:0045716];
positive regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis [GO:0048260];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
protein sumoylation [GO:0016925];
regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage by p53 class mediator [GO:1902165];
regulation of lipid transport by positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0072369];
regulation of low-density lipoprotein particle clearance [GO:0010988];
RNA processing [GO:0006396];
signal transduction [GO:0007165];
viral process [GO:0016032]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
C-rich single-stranded DNA binding [GO:1990829];
mRNA 3'-UTR binding [GO:0003730];
mRNA CDS binding [GO:1990715];
poly(A RNA binding [GO:0044822];
pre-mRNA 3'-splice site binding [GO:0030628];
ribonucleoprotein complex binding [GO:0043021];
RNA binding [GO:0003723];
RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0000978];
single-stranded DNA binding [GO:0003697];
transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding [GO:0001077]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
axon terminus [GO:0043679];
catalytic step 2 spliceosome [GO:0071013];
cell cortex [GO:0005938];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
dendritic spine [GO:0043197];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
focal adhesion [GO:0005925];
membrane [GO:0016020];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
nuclear chromatin [GO:0000790];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
podosome [GO:0002102];
postsynaptic density [GO:0014069];
protein-DNA complex [GO:0032993]
Protein-protein interaction109431
Phylogenetic treeP61978
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.01803093494790.002037895159286210.00671957029988224
AZA vs. DISU-0.09053640670365820.719640230677110.973374730783303
AZA vs. IL70.2080245335504030.2773996174395490.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.2553700705507160.2952779780047680.667920204148239
DISU vs. CD3-1.121012508746520.002203632086534620.00813956139976058
DISU vs. IL70.2892579783762350.2499746852739180.636587183718226
DISU vs. SAHA-0.1632277512843850.5758472512087830.862940630701757
DMSO vs. AZA-0.001049896152735610.9949723945295981
DMSO vs. CD3-1.03028360508730.001393583957965520.00456597266784482
DMSO vs. DISU0.08774572189488130.7183609172053880.963064442066846
DMSO vs. IL70.2162254147953140.2273124030651430.735035280181689
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.2607046909561810.2688319909482090.617805266175734
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.07019597936301590.9100692741021920.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.007053702143700750.965736643282740.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.8028689966430420.01278903586472640.0363990063423377
SAHA vs. CD3-1.297427721657630.0002975164097155370.00124716892751409
SAHA vs. IL7-0.4661734007347560.05576734625787630.198029912247639
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.00497286 0.981756
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.023 1.084 0.94 0.858 1.075
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1J5K NMR - A=379-463.
1KHM NMR - A=379-463.
1ZZI X-ray 1.8Å A/B=385-463.
1ZZJ X-ray 2.3Å A/B/C=385-463.
1ZZK X-ray 0.9Å A=385-463.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Rev interacts with 12370808
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 complexes with 23125841
Nef interacts with 18854243
Gag-Pol complexes with 23125841
Pr55(Gag) complexes with 23125841
Nef complexes with 23125841

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa03040 Spliceosome - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05168 Herpes simplex infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05203 Viral carcinogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05206 MicroRNAs in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)