Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001353
UniProt IDQ14103
Primary gene name(s)HNRNPD
Synonym gene name(s)AUF1, HNRPD
Protein nameHeterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0
Protein functionBinds with high affinity to RNA molecules that contain AU-rich elements, AREs found within the 3'-UTR of many proto-oncogenes and cytokine mRNAs. Also binds to double- and single-stranded DNA sequences in a specific manner and functions a transcription factor. Each of the RNA-binding domains specifically can bind solely to a single-stranded non-monotonous 5'-UUAG-3' sequence and also weaker to the single-stranded 5'-TTAGGG-3' telomeric DNA repeat. Binds RNA oligonucleotides with 5'-UUAGGG-3' repeats more tightly than the telomeric single-stranded DNA 5'-TTAGGG-3' repeats. Binding of RRM1 to DNA inhibits the formation of DNA quadruplex structure which may play a role in telomere elongation. May be involved in translationally coupled mRNA turnover. Implicated with other RNA-binding proteins in the cytoplasmic deadenylation/translational and decay interplay of the FOS mRNA mediated by the major coding-region determinant of instability, mCRD domain. May play a role in the regulation of the rhythmic expression of circadian clock core genes. Directly binds to the 3'UTR of CRY1 mRNA and induces CRY1 rhythmic translation. May also be involved in the regulation of PER2 translation. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10080887, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11051545, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24423872}.
Subcellular locationNucleus. Cytoplasm. Note=Localized in cytoplasmic mRNP granules containing untranslated mRNAs. Component of ribonucleosomes. Cytoplasmic localization oscillates diurnally.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q14103
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
3'-UTR-mediated mRNA destabilization [GO:0061158];
cellular response to amino acid stimulus [GO:0071230];
cellular response to estradiol stimulus [GO:0071392];
cellular response to nitric oxide [GO:0071732];
cellular response to putrescine [GO:1904586];
cerebellum development [GO:0021549];
circadian regulation of translation [GO:0097167];
gene expression [GO:0010467];
hepatocyte dedifferentiation [GO:1990828];
liver development [GO:0001889];
mRNA splicing, via spliceosome [GO:0000398];
mRNA stabilization [GO:0048255];
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045893];
positive regulation of translation [GO:0045727];
regulation of circadian rhythm [GO:0042752];
regulation of mRNA stability [GO:0043488];
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006355];
response to calcium ion [GO:0051592];
response to electrical stimulus [GO:0051602];
response to rapamycin [GO:1901355];
response to sodium phosphate [GO:1904383];
RNA catabolic process [GO:0006401];
RNA processing [GO:0006396];
transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006351]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
AT DNA binding [GO:0003680];
chromatin binding [GO:0003682];
mRNA 3'-UTR AU-rich region binding [GO:0035925];
nucleotide binding [GO:0000166];
poly(A RNA binding [GO:0044822];
RNA binding [GO:0003723];
telomeric DNA binding [GO:0042162]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
intracellular ribonucleoprotein complex [GO:0030529];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction109425
Phylogenetic treeQ14103
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.037055742062060.001730993668638050.00585360928286126
AZA vs. DISU-0.1858631318265190.4618407804094320.924565405559239
AZA vs. IL70.2373207502590770.215953384232980.982216324455538
AZA vs. SAHA-0.1383832866417320.5697934637797860.856407697938929
DISU vs. CD3-1.235386661602350.0007721739555617280.00330674721765269
DISU vs. IL70.4138277726175680.1003256388327850.419996946793732
DISU vs. SAHA0.0487295464918810.8669461430152750.964413328849268
DMSO vs. AZA-0.002321148305011240.9889069574044921
DMSO vs. CD3-1.047857208947370.001190859515833090.00399294427020375
DMSO vs. DISU0.1825965115015860.4535825856434950.889825663839197
DMSO vs. IL70.2463761315522460.1695709174967970.679984715775129
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1436170554025740.5416183415759580.834720321698667
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.05477829850348820.9297976146467920.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.0504274317242980.7589977949479170.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.7924279321488290.01417500818249380.0396623874572766
SAHA vs. CD3-1.200183406701090.000803009933666110.0029580444146537
SAHA vs. IL7-0.3788342117099490.1194622446940870.31951275310835
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change -1.448308876
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.220229 0.114414
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.089 1.045 0.761 0.71 1.095
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1HD0 NMR - A=98-172.
1HD1 NMR - A=98-172.
1IQT NMR - A=183-257.
1WTB NMR - A=181-259.
1X0F NMR - A=181-259.
2Z5N X-ray 3.2Å B=332-355.
5IM0 X-ray 1.7Å A=71-175# B=96-175.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Pr55(Gag) inhibited by 22187150
Rev interacts with 22174317
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 complexes with 23125841
Gag-Pol complexes with 23125841
Vpr downregulates 23874603
Pr55(Gag) associates with 22187150
Pr55(Gag) regulated by 22187150
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor regulated by 22187150
Nef complexes with 23125841

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found