Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001344
UniProt IDQ01581
Primary gene name(s)HMGCS1
Synonym gene name(s)HMGCS
Protein nameHydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase, cytoplasmic
Protein functionThis enzyme condenses acetyl-CoA with acetoacetyl-CoA to form HMG-CoA, which is the substrate for HMG-CoA reductase.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q01581
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
brain development [GO:0007420];
cellular response to cholesterol [GO:0071397];
cellular response to follicle-stimulating hormone stimulus [GO:0071372];
cholesterol biosynthetic process [GO:0006695];
isoprenoid biosynthetic process [GO:0008299];
lipid metabolic process [GO:0006629];
liver development [GO:0001889];
male gonad development [GO:0008584];
response to drug [GO:0042493];
response to lipoprotein particle [GO:0055094];
response to low light intensity stimulus [GO:0009645];
response to purine-containing compound [GO:0014074];
response to tellurium ion [GO:0046690];
response to vitamin E [GO:0033197]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
drug binding [GO:0008144];
hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase activity [GO:0004421];
isomerase activity [GO:0016853];
organic acid binding [GO:0043177]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction109400
Phylogenetic treeQ01581
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.498652799747910.02036861294947930.0473028866524734
AZA vs. DISU0.1425615908138940.5742383159780480.954304256505839
AZA vs. IL70.2718448890355350.4074087445652130.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.47245379917450.05414510577717670.283298620092038
DISU vs. CD3-1.368189089246240.03427143122225860.0797603140719973
DISU vs. IL70.1200300707147920.6913152980944050.919091464747611
DISU vs. SAHA-0.6144581837810750.03554158827425540.229595918080284
DMSO vs. AZA0.0060959287507730.9799690586989171
DMSO vs. CD3-1.502744925354470.01988645523826950.0446216038374337
DMSO vs. DISU-0.1380759470658410.5725512166766630.930882182434731
DMSO vs. IL70.2729587537828650.3961810737675560.843716690641228
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.4858687222819370.04038386619972160.223348714677433
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.01448530828905230.9912426441889350.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.08410347711320070.6133185306562560.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.2191192113520.06540565391297440.136206054356212
SAHA vs. CD3-1.995586932975260.001748318414569350.00576809798663511
SAHA vs. IL7-0.7476290540026580.006785574977228310.0478194283341466
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.486906 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.019 1.431 3.407 2.75 0.864
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB07740 (3R,5S,7R,12S,13R)-13-FORMYL-12,14-DIHYDROXY-3,5,7-TRIMETHYLTETRADECANOIC ACID experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2P8U X-ray 2.0Å A/B=16-470.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
HIV-1 virus replication enhanced by expression of human gene 18854154

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00072 Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00280 Valine# leucine and isoleucine degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00650 Butanoate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00900 Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)