Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001339
UniProt IDP52926
Primary gene name(s)HMGA2
Synonym gene name(s)HMGIC
Protein nameHigh mobility group protein HMGI-C
Protein functionFunctions as a transcriptional regulator. Functions in cell cycle regulation through CCNA2. Plays an important role in chromosome condensation during the meiotic G2/M transition of spermatocytes. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:14645522}.
Subcellular locationNucleus.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P52926
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
base-excision repair [GO:0006284];
cell division [GO:0051301];
chondrocyte differentiation [GO:0002062];
chondrocyte proliferation [GO:0035988];
chromatin organization [GO:0006325];
chromosome breakage [GO:0031052];
chromosome condensation [GO:0030261];
DNA damage response, detection of DNA damage [GO:0042769];
endodermal cell differentiation [GO:0035987];
epithelial to mesenchymal transition [GO:0001837];
fat cell differentiation [GO:0045444];
heterochromatin assembly [GO:0031507];
histone H2A-S139 phosphorylation [GO:0035978];
mesenchymal cell differentiation [GO:0048762];
mesodermal cell differentiation [GO:0048333];
mesodermal-endodermal cell signaling [GO:0003131];
mitotic G2 DNA damage checkpoint [GO:0007095];
mitotic nuclear division [GO:0007067];
multicellular organism development [GO:0007275];
negative regulation by host of viral transcription [GO:0043922];
negative regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043066];
negative regulation of DNA binding [GO:0043392];
negative regulation of double-strand break repair via nonhomologous end joining [GO:2001033];
negative regulation of single stranded viral RNA replication via double stranded DNA intermediate [GO:0045869];
negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045892];
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0000122];
oncogene-induced cell senescence [GO:0090402];
positive regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043065];
positive regulation of cell cycle arrest [GO:0071158];
positive regulation of cellular response to X-ray [GO:2000685];
positive regulation of cellular senescence [GO:2000774];
positive regulation of gene expression [GO:0010628];
positive regulation of response to DNA damage stimulus [GO:2001022];
positive regulation of stem cell proliferation [GO:2000648];
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045893];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
positive regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding [GO:2000679];
regulation of cell cycle process [GO:0010564];
regulation of cellular response to drug [GO:2001038];
regulation of growth [GO:0040008];
regulation of stem cell population maintenance [GO:2000036];
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006355];
response to virus [GO:0009615];
senescence-associated heterochromatin focus assembly [GO:0035986];
stem cell differentiation [GO:0048863]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
5'-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase activity [GO:0051575];
AT DNA binding [GO:0003680];
C2H2 zinc finger domain binding [GO:0070742];
cAMP response element binding [GO:0035497];
core promoter binding [GO:0001047];
DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site lyase activity [GO:0003906];
DNA binding [GO:0003677];
DNA binding, bending [GO:0008301];
DNA-dependent protein kinase activity [GO:0004677];
MH1 domain binding [GO:0035501];
MH2 domain binding [GO:0035500];
nucleosomal DNA binding [GO:0031492];
regulatory region DNA binding [GO:0000975];
SMAD binding [GO:0046332];
transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding [GO:0001077];
transcriptional repressor activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding [GO:0001078];
transcription factor binding [GO:0008134]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
nuclear chromosome [GO:0000228];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
protein-DNA complex [GO:0032993];
senescence-associated heterochromatin focus [GO:0035985];
SMAD protein complex [GO:0071141]
Protein-protein interaction113763
Phylogenetic treeP52926
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.6327978618410710.4411957163194960.562390209435677
AZA vs. DISU0.01511605510461290.9872581339890270.998932793566471
AZA vs. IL7-0.07229221643406820.929920375160180.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.3286416756744750.7217436698858890.922153925942357
DISU vs. CD30.630608140988480.45240701810960.582671171478479
DISU vs. IL7-0.09349234412718690.9104832577942220.982189124739072
DISU vs. SAHA-0.3462069535557750.7092829393414010.914054251030711
DMSO vs. AZA0.2298197807572060.7912335572378481
DMSO vs. CD30.834385561149790.2175782026515520.319633723769191
DMSO vs. DISU0.2095803092319070.8102551980232920.97872015419905
DMSO vs. IL7-0.2924471149100610.6832206693710440.935762455735003
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.5644479167972630.5041654645036920.817230311314925
HIV vs. Mock in Activationunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Latencyunknownunknownunknown
IL7 vs. CD30.5699325243291550.3534698313270680.490537130994061
SAHA vs. CD30.276010337613940.7284679879789430.80348478217395
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2639515506176860.7406514344061110.881938871877227
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change -0.945988761
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
NOTEST 1.5126 1
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat interacts with 19454010

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa05202 Transcriptional misregulation in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05206 MicroRNAs in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
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