Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001288
UniProt IDP54198
Primary gene name(s)HIRA
Synonym gene name(s)DGCR1, HIR, TUPLE1
Protein nameProtein HIRA
Protein functionCooperates with ASF1A to promote replication-independent chromatin assembly. Required for the periodic repression of histone gene transcription during the cell cycle. Required for the formation of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci, SAHF and efficient senescence-associated cell cycle exit. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12370293, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14718166, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15621527}.
Subcellular locationNucleus. Nucleus, PML body. Note=Primarily, though not exclusively, localized to the nucleus. Localizes to PML bodies immediately prior to onset of senescence.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P54198
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
anatomical structure morphogenesis [GO:0009653];
covalent chromatin modification [GO:0016569];
DNA replication-independent nucleosome assembly [GO:0006336];
gastrulation [GO:0007369];
muscle cell differentiation [GO:0042692];
osteoblast differentiation [GO:0001649];
regulation of chromatin silencing [GO:0031935];
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0006357];
transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006351]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
transcription corepressor activity [GO:0003714];
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0003700]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
nuclear chromatin [GO:0000790];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
PML body [GO:0016605];
protein complex [GO:0043234]
Protein-protein interaction113141
Phylogenetic treeP54198
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.5469727157979220.09666706913640220.171146019737326
AZA vs. DISU0.1249478092970870.6226277464307270.960057478314726
AZA vs. IL70.1013380703504160.6009487695075080.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.2758965619463520.2614741072695210.633369868709749
DISU vs. CD3-0.4344193301843590.2331653415972950.357479084544103
DISU vs. IL7-0.03290279919662170.896372631848880.980753188062264
DISU vs. SAHA0.1530948314550070.6014496167155310.873443172130523
DMSO vs. AZA0.04627472793629450.7847301487827381
DMSO vs. CD3-0.5140582263659740.1101128076080880.184645049766469
DMSO vs. DISU-0.08110850042334070.7403677980043830.968280032491861
DMSO vs. IL70.06272224909789780.7292097144420790.945457679987472
DMSO vs. SAHA0.2243191181236910.3451432153512010.696648419392132
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1254954285509630.8401940657293250.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.02202979765476060.894892761893570.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.4391959082952580.174018420760460.290441773460571
SAHA vs. CD3-0.2950246540345420.404098165392860.520264543250807
SAHA vs. IL70.1718159698173460.4837575847531130.715830159278338
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.169113 0.366962
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.994 1.1 0.937 0.934 1.164
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2I32 X-ray 2.7Å E/F=425-472.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found