Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001217
UniProt IDQ9NZI5
Primary gene name(s)GRHL1
Synonym gene name(s)LBP32, MGR, TFCP2L2
Protein nameGrainyhead-like protein 1 homolog
Protein functionTranscription factor involved in epithelial development. Binds directly to the consensus DNA sequence 5'-AACCGGTT-3', PubMed:12175488, PubMed:18288204. Important regulator of DSG1 in the context of hair anchorage and epidermal differentiation, participates in the maintenance of the skin barrier. There is no genetic interaction with GRHL3, no functional cooperativity due to diverse target gene selectivity during epithelia development, By similarity. Isoform 1 may function as an activator and isoform 2 as a repressor in tissues where both forms are expressed, PubMed:12175488. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q921D9, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12175488, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18288204}.
Subcellular locationNucleus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:18288204}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9NZI5
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
desmosome organization [GO:0002934];
epidermis development [GO:0008544];
establishment of skin barrier [GO:0061436];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
regulation of keratinocyte differentiation [GO:0045616]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
chromatin DNA binding [GO:0031490];
RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0000978];
sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0043565];
transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding [GO:0001077];
transcription regulatory region DNA binding [GO:0044212]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
Golgi apparatus [GO:0005794];
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO:0043231];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction118928
Phylogenetic treeQ9NZI5
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD33.8608884078465600
AZA vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. CD3-2.487230249435241.69915237435703e-093.22988939357602e-08
DISU vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. AZAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. CD3-3.6183840679812300
DMSO vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.2707378459687860.6755402735036850.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latencyunknownunknownunknown
IL7 vs. CD3-3.5758574426572800
SAHA vs. CD3-2.379756587026454.31474189710457e-096.22231199898238e-08
SAHA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 1.50521 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found
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