Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001185
UniProt IDP08754
Primary gene name(s)GNAI3
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameGuanine nucleotide-binding protein G(k subunit alpha
Protein functionHeterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, G proteins function as transducers downstream of G protein-coupled receptors, GPCRs in numerous signaling cascades. The alpha chain contains the guanine nucleotide binding site and alternates between an active, GTP-bound state and an inactive, GDP-bound state. Signaling by an activated GPCR promotes GDP release and GTP binding. The alpha subunit has a low GTPase activity that converts bound GTP to GDP, thereby terminating the signal. Both GDP release and GTP hydrolysis are modulated by numerous regulatory proteins, PubMed:8774883, PubMed:18434541, PubMed:19478087. Signaling is mediated via effector proteins, such as adenylate cyclase. Inhibits adenylate cyclase activity, leading to decreased intracellular cAMP levels, PubMed:19478087. Stimulates the activity of receptor-regulated K(+ channels, PubMed:2535845. The active GTP-bound form prevents the association of RGS14 with centrosomes and is required for the translocation of RGS14 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. May play a role in cell division, PubMed:17635935. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17635935, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18434541, ECO:0000269|PubMed:2535845, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8774883}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17635935}. Cell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17635935}. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17635935}. Membrane {ECO:0000305};
Lipid-anchor {ECO:0000305}. Note=Localizes in the centrosomes of interphase and mitotic cells. Detected at the cleavage furrow and/or the midbody. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17635935}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P08754
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway [GO:0007193];
cell cycle [GO:0007049];
cell division [GO:0051301];
dopamine receptor signaling pathway [GO:0007212];
GTP metabolic process [GO:0046039];
negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity [GO:0007194];
protein folding [GO:0006457];
transport [GO:0006810];
vesicle fusion [GO:0006906]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
GDP binding [GO:0019003];
G-protein beta/gamma-subunit complex binding [GO:0031683];
G-protein coupled receptor binding [GO:0001664];
GTPase activity [GO:0003924];
GTP binding [GO:0005525];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
signal transducer activity [GO:0004871]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
centrosome [GO:0005813];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
Golgi apparatus [GO:0005794];
heterotrimeric G-protein complex [GO:0005834];
lysosomal membrane [GO:0005765];
membrane [GO:0016020];
membrane raft [GO:0045121];
midbody [GO:0030496];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
zymogen granule [GO:0042588]
Protein-protein interaction109035
Phylogenetic treeP08754
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.4854198075012310.1441068767459940.235189912974079
AZA vs. DISU-0.03908304799937450.8770638503047080.991771899371402
AZA vs. IL70.1626227999215490.3972437236108230.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.3559017721423670.1448289854353330.484413275553403
DISU vs. CD3-0.536947493994830.1445951428903990.24881588857647
DISU vs. IL70.192802058627260.4437190738466630.792074012816868
DISU vs. SAHA-0.3159707110373960.2782810863984770.658522063221982
DMSO vs. AZA-0.09677410195324890.5631933142316311
DMSO vs. CD3-0.5938137277847950.06767515541155710.123969627465358
DMSO vs. DISU-0.05965675429578620.8066253790820090.978074663187325
DMSO vs. IL70.2667089901851630.1379107044905090.636170094918733
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.2660031133441690.2592483233579840.607640976878411
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.1450049584940070.8157233466990960.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.003950864702306140.9808949209862280.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.3143018081970920.3326337103240060.471034424872126
SAHA vs. CD3-0.8664200996175130.01588139137710080.0378959918368703
SAHA vs. IL7-0.5220717656769680.03232996634588270.137434267540281
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.0544185 0.759723
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.004 1.148 0.982 0.905 1.126
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2IHB X-ray 2.7Å A=32-354.
2ODE X-ray 1.9Å A/C=4-350.
2V4Z X-ray 2.8Å A=4-350.
4G5O X-ray 2.9Å A/B/C/D=25-354.
4G5R X-ray 3.4Å A/B/C/D=25-354.
4G5S X-ray 3.6Å A/B/C/D=25-354.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 complexes with 18453587
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 interacts with 18453587

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04015 Rap1 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04022 cGMP-PKG signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04024 cAMP signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04062 Chemokine signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04071 Sphingolipid signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04261 Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04360 Axon guidance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04540 Gap junction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04611 Platelet activation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04670 Leukocyte transendothelial migration - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04713 Circadian entrainment - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04723 Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04724 Glutamatergic synapse - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04725 Cholinergic synapse - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04726 Serotonergic synapse - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04727 GABAergic synapse - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04728 Dopaminergic synapse - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04730 Long-term depression - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04914 Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04915 Estrogen signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04916 Melanogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04921 Oxytocin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04923 Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04924 Renin secretion - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04971 Gastric acid secretion - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05012 Parkinson's disease - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05030 Cocaine addiction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05032 Morphine addiction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05034 Alcoholism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05133 Pertussis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05142 Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05145 Toxoplasmosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05200 Pathways in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)