Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001182
UniProt IDO75496
Primary gene name(s)GMNN
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameGeminin
Protein functionInhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex, pre-RC. It is degraded during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle. Its destruction at the metaphase-anaphase transition permits replication in the succeeding cell cycle.; FUNCTION: Inhibits the transcriptional activity of a subset of Hox proteins, enrolling them in cell proliferative control.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Mainly cytoplasmic but can be relocalized to the nucleus.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: O75496
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
animal organ morphogenesis [GO:0009887];
cell cycle [GO:0007049];
negative regulation of cell cycle [GO:0045786];
negative regulation of DNA replication [GO:0008156];
negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045892];
protein complex assembly [GO:0006461]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
histone deacetylase binding [GO:0042826];
transcription corepressor activity [GO:0003714]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction119246
Phylogenetic treeO75496
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.604191187583350.04797888272724070.0964569455068657
AZA vs. DISU0.3557936973232130.1698220868079360.750923478011974
AZA vs. IL70.3430966629975260.1046010077889280.847135503345074
AZA vs. SAHA0.3124533655433410.2164194363596780.585357780838232
DISU vs. CD3-1.26125554474860.1161838094381330.209868752962303
DISU vs. IL7-0.02133588123790270.9395563048124380.988709793931654
DISU vs. SAHA-0.04128832816115180.8914581507334950.973210126019885
DMSO vs. AZA-0.1033523023791510.5613192006977881
DMSO vs. CD3-1.718351739556110.03400388192068440.0695768899307177
DMSO vs. DISU-0.460914436574260.06564339029608110.483902749419061
DMSO vs. IL70.4533823971686010.01712960952466250.272554298105888
DMSO vs. SAHA0.4094121334211780.0936162143781150.358796978027865
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.3365290399617640.8323561894994710.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.03835768792998060.8255352184886530.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.252313057897810.1195404449244770.217323980985001
SAHA vs. CD3-1.315456276850710.1344381378389750.220791492723774
SAHA vs. IL7-0.03269415581188930.8974406953013680.960729673106835
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
2.5 0.000256789 1.6 0.014126774 1.8 0.048881577
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.759183 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.279 1.094 0.941 0.811 1.112
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
218350_s_at 2.16 No upregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1T6F X-ray 1.4Å A/B=109-145.
1UII X-ray 2.0Å A/B=70-152.
2LP0 NMR - B=171-190.
2WVR X-ray 3.3Å A/B=1-209.
4BRY X-ray 2.8Å A=83-160.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found