Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001179
UniProt IDP17900
Primary gene name(s)GM2A
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameGanglioside GM2 activator
Protein functionThe large binding pocket can accommodate several single chain phospholipids and fatty acids, GM2A also exhibits some calcium-independent phospholipase activity, By similarity. Binds gangliosides and stimulates ganglioside GM2 degradation. It stimulates only the breakdown of ganglioside GM2 and glycolipid GA2 by beta-hexosaminidase A. It extracts single GM2 molecules from membranes and presents them in soluble form to beta-hexosaminidase A for cleavage of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and conversion to GM3. {ECO:0000250}.
Subcellular locationLysosome.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P17900
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
ganglioside catabolic process [GO:0006689];
glycosphingolipid metabolic process [GO:0006687];
learning or memory [GO:0007611];
lipid storage [GO:0019915];
neuromuscular process controlling balance [GO:0050885];
oligosaccharide catabolic process [GO:0009313];
positive regulation of hydrolase activity [GO:0051345]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity [GO:0032428];
lipid transporter activity [GO:0005319];
phospholipase activator activity [GO:0016004];
sphingolipid activator protein activity [GO:0030290]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
apical cortex [GO:0045179];
cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane [GO:0009898];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
hydrogen:potassium-exchanging ATPase complex [GO:0005889];
lysosomal lumen [GO:0043202];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739]
Protein-protein interaction109022
Phylogenetic treeP17900
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      Yes - Enhanced HIV replication observed with two siRNA pools
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-1.496428165469790.0001403642955220.000652148786099747
AZA vs. DISU0.2083946337586840.4141202445397480.910230653368199
AZA vs. IL7-0.09757831324632310.6182090390510210.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.458178288208250.06330993489528080.308346997935852
DISU vs. CD31.692046696525251.31658889732655e-059.4912773975612e-05
DISU vs. IL7-0.3155291802851050.2141943701106810.594546147931968
DISU vs. SAHA0.2516857043185630.391456167422490.756072779600711
DMSO vs. AZA-0.01037463553036540.9517530812555121
DMSO vs. CD31.475591563888650.0002035271337013090.000844433012726582
DMSO vs. DISU-0.2203780925751280.3704566350790390.851842633067074
DMSO vs. IL7-0.08017702696224070.6616602682479110.930720214970352
DMSO vs. SAHA0.462238361627020.05251152141594910.259987233659582
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.2054877212227620.8167822959022660.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1825793763732930.2796212882679860.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.405774675673280.0003534907130637870.00173612431346056
SAHA vs. CD31.930285959227474.18345694441769e-062.90947075819994e-05
SAHA vs. IL70.5527749479162260.02525561031738680.116966244821223
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
1.6 8.22E-06 1.3 0.005203427 1.7 0.039459124
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.183684 0.19047
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.079 0.888 1.142 1.53 0.858
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB02261 Platelet Activating Factor experimental unknown unknown
DB02325 Isopropyl Alcohol approved unknown unknown
DB03017 Lauric Acid experimental unknown unknown
DB03633 Lpc-Ether experimental unknown unknown
DB04660 Choline alfoscerate experimental unknown unknown
DB08231 MYRISTIC ACID experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1G13 X-ray 2.0Å A/B/C=32-193.
1PU5 X-ray 1.9Å A/B/C=32-193.
1PUB X-ray 2.5Å A=32-193.
1TJJ X-ray 2.0Å A/B/C=32-193.
2AF9 X-ray 2.0Å A=32-193.
2AG2 X-ray 2.0Å A/B/C=32-193.
2AG4 X-ray 1.8Å A/B=32-193.
2AG9 X-ray 2.2Å A/B=32-193.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
HIV-1 virus replication inhibited by expression of human gene 18976975

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04142 Lysosome - Homo sapiens (human)