Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001177
UniProt IDP15104
Primary gene name(s)GLUL
Synonym gene name(s)GLNS
Protein nameGlutamine synthetase
Protein functionThis enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA, the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner, By similarity. Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts. {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18662667}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm. Mitochondrion {ECO:0000250}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P15104
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
ammonia assimilation cycle [GO:0019676];
cell proliferation [GO:0008283];
cellular amino acid biosynthetic process [GO:0008652];
cellular response to starvation [GO:0009267];
glutamate catabolic process [GO:0006538];
glutamine biosynthetic process [GO:0006542];
neurotransmitter uptake [GO:0001504];
positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation [GO:0050679];
positive regulation of insulin secretion [GO:0032024];
positive regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic [GO:0051968];
protein homooligomerization [GO:0051260];
response to glucose [GO:0009749]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
glutamate-ammonia ligase activity [GO:0004356];
glutamate binding [GO:0016595];
glutamate decarboxylase activity [GO:0004351];
identical protein binding [GO:0042802];
magnesium ion binding [GO:0000287];
manganese ion binding [GO:0030145]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
axon terminus [GO:0043679];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
glial cell projection [GO:0097386];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
myelin sheath [GO:0043209];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
perikaryon [GO:0043204];
protein complex [GO:0043234];
rough endoplasmic reticulum [GO:0005791]
Protein-protein interaction109014
Phylogenetic treeP15104
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.727015173719590.06437812704222860.122714952672375
AZA vs. DISU-0.2207607983125620.3827351464488640.899712582111771
AZA vs. IL70.4855399124671170.01166206499690870.357281109143099
AZA vs. SAHA-0.3060307672294480.2107016392698170.579266188282549
DISU vs. CD30.4943553777544030.2321526755561470.356252614408364
DISU vs. IL70.6970781752007250.005892650573118610.0832197464716625
DISU vs. SAHA-0.08362433256500430.7748443993977020.937243587386417
DMSO vs. AZA0.04040641688505970.8092793821132021
DMSO vs. CD30.7553160867558970.05256415700808150.100466762918897
DMSO vs. DISU0.2591319526528180.2883750071834240.802360465916222
DMSO vs. IL70.452462225805090.01190924189445450.228702957399875
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.3525277109494470.1355031355013150.441213231673784
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.09822578735884220.9095666179483050.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1349089206112550.4130808132279370.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.219779806179660.001706851088131510.00671382214285132
SAHA vs. CD30.3971069424270160.3042858251911410.417668948504463
SAHA vs. IL7-0.7945564273864880.001173986979010830.0132262180281086
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
-0.5764 0.02361

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.0481686 0.79707
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.054 1.073 0.871 0.955 1.078
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
200648_s_at 1.6 No downregulated in CD8+ cells
215001_s_at 1.56 No downregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00130 L-Glutamine approved, investigational, nutraceutical unknown product of
DB00142 L-Glutamic Acid nutraceutical unknown unknown
DB00134 L-Methionine approved, nutraceutical unknown inhibitor
DB06774 Capsaicin approved unknown inducer
DB01212 Ceftriaxone approved unknown inducer
DB01119 Diazoxide approved unknown inhibitor
DB00082 Pegvisomant approved unknown inhibitor
DB00466 Picrotoxin experimental unknown inhibitor
DB08794 Ethyl biscoumacetate withdrawn unknown inhibitor

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2OJW X-ray 2.0Å A/B/C/D/E=5-365.
2QC8 X-ray 2.6Å A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H/I/J=5-365.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 downregulates 18062818

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00220 Arginine biosynthesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00250 Alanine# aspartate and glutamate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00630 Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00910 Nitrogen metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01230 Biosynthesis of amino acids - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04724 Glutamatergic synapse - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04727 GABAergic synapse - Homo sapiens (human)