Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001135
UniProt IDP41250
Primary gene name(s)GARS
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameGlycine--tRNA ligase
Protein functionCatalyzes the attachment of glycine to tRNA(Gly. Is also able produce diadenosine tetraphosphate, Ap4A, a universal pleiotropic signaling molecule needed for cell regulation pathways, by direct condensation of 2 ATPs. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17544401, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19710017}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:9524218}. Mitochondrion {ECO:0000269|PubMed:9524218}. Cell projection, axon {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17035524, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25168514}. Note=Associated with granules in cultured neuron cells. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17035524}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P41250
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
diadenosine tetraphosphate biosynthetic process [GO:0015966];
glycyl-tRNA aminoacylation [GO:0006426];
tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation [GO:0006418]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
glycine-tRNA ligase activity [GO:0004820];
protein dimerization activity [GO:0046983]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
axon [GO:0030424];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
mitochondrial matrix [GO:0005759];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
secretory granule [GO:0030141]
Protein-protein interaction108887
Phylogenetic treeP41250
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.663062077029077.30586768860064e-075.84469415088051e-06
AZA vs. DISU-0.02532537866505290.9202621933309720.994889252656529
AZA vs. IL70.4212137453294970.02881051890091910.540135140815988
AZA vs. SAHA-0.06674474932055450.7846625612844080.942695739921987
DISU vs. CD3-1.701633551954474.85797350990858e-063.89931270971043e-05
DISU vs. IL70.4375096909516280.08288362375314670.381168586967263
DISU vs. SAHA-0.03912638296643910.8933025499325460.973945010373438
DMSO vs. AZA-0.02548524810825360.8793716046653671
DMSO vs. CD3-1.697733656620012.34578181435019e-071.90097918414124e-06
DMSO vs. DISU-0.001233760646751580.9959655776474450.999113603185714
DMSO vs. IL70.453731075862070.0118414604650010.227982141136514
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.04755284005593010.8404325671823620.957092278978795
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.1336922542544420.8296440699966010.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.1443093528684380.3827862619539370.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.234958164297030.0001497630361674270.000829918472114571
SAHA vs. CD3-1.753416980731121.3648629278995e-061.07071755978373e-05
SAHA vs. IL7-0.4907588516276550.04452942712815190.170148690628583
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.501979 0.00108419
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.03 0.947 0.986 0.961 0.795
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00145 Glycine approved, nutraceutical, vet_approved unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2PME X-ray 2.9Å A=55-739.
2PMF X-ray 2.8Å A=55-739.
2Q5H X-ray 3.0Å A=55-739.
2Q5I X-ray 2.8Å A=55-739.
2ZT5 X-ray 2.5Å A=55-739.
2ZT6 X-ray 3.0Å A=55-739.
2ZT7 X-ray 2.7Å A=55-739.
2ZT8 X-ray 3.3Å A=55-739.
2ZXF X-ray 3.4Å A=55-739.
4KQE X-ray 2.7Å A=55-739.
4KR2 X-ray 3.2Å A=114-739.
4KR3 X-ray 3.2Å A=114-739.
4QEI X-ray 2.8Å A=118-739.
5E6M X-ray 2.9Å A/B=55-739.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00970 Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis - Homo sapiens (human)