Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001126
UniProt IDQ99259
Primary gene name(s)GAD1
Synonym gene name(s)GAD, GAD67
Protein nameGlutamate decarboxylase 1
Protein functionCatalyzes the production of GABA.
Subcellular locationunknown
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q99259
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
chemical synaptic transmission [GO:0007268];
gamma-aminobutyric acid biosynthetic process [GO:0009449];
glutamate catabolic process [GO:0006538];
glutamate decarboxylation to succinate [GO:0006540];
neurotransmitter biosynthetic process [GO:0042136];
neurotransmitter secretion [GO:0007269];
protein-pyridoxal-5-phosphate linkage [GO:0018352];
response to drug [GO:0042493]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
glutamate binding [GO:0016595];
glutamate decarboxylase activity [GO:0004351];
pyridoxal phosphate binding [GO:0030170]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
clathrin-sculpted gamma-aminobutyric acid transport vesicle membrane [GO:0061202];
intracellular [GO:0005622];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
presynaptic active zone [GO:0048786];
vesicle membrane [GO:0012506]
Protein-protein interaction108845
Phylogenetic treeQ99259
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD32.393147102993940.009065490969582310.0240180836262928
AZA vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. CD3-2.119740485778780.03374061252303810.0788169832902953
DISU vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. AZAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. CD3-2.206323335742790.0146310015411650.0343916427239275
DMSO vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-1.034341654785310.2888602037168920.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latencyunknownunknownunknown
IL7 vs. CD3-2.747229428578290.0002838532999204220.00143394267535789
SAHA vs. CD3-0.8019610359968210.2054748770752830.308140750077074
SAHA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change 5.743442378
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
NOTEST 2.40398 1
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.011 1.009 1.061 0.934 0.992
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00114 Pyridoxal Phosphate nutraceutical unknown cofactor
DB00142 L-Glutamic Acid nutraceutical unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2OKJ X-ray 2.3Å A/B=93-594.
3VP6 X-ray 2.1Å A/B=90-594.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 inhibited by 25851180

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00250 Alanine# aspartate and glutamate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00410 beta-Alanine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00430 Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00650 Butanoate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04727 GABAergic synapse - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04940 Type I diabetes mellitus - Homo sapiens (human)
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