Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001095
UniProt IDP01100
Primary gene name(s)FOS
Synonym gene name(s)G0S7
Protein nameProto-oncogene c-Fos
Protein functionNuclear phosphoprotein which forms a tight but non-covalently linked complex with the JUN/AP-1 transcription factor. In the heterodimer, FOS and JUN/AP-1 basic regions each seems to interact with symmetrical DNA half sites. On TGF-beta activation, forms a multimeric SMAD3/SMAD4/JUN/FOS complex at the AP1/SMAD-binding site to regulate TGF-beta-mediated signaling. Has a critical function in regulating the development of cells destined to form and maintain the skeleton. It is thought to have an important role in signal transduction, cell proliferation and differentiation. In growing cells, activates phospholipid synthesis, possibly by activating CDS1 and PI4K2A. This activity requires Tyr-dephosphorylation and association with the endoplasmic reticulum. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16055710, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17160021, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22105363, ECO:0000269|PubMed:7588633, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9732876}.
Subcellular locationNucleus. Endoplasmic reticulum. Cytoplasm, cytosol. Note=In quiescent cells, present in very small amounts in the cytosol. Following induction of cell growth, first localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and only later to the nucleus. Localization at the endoplasmic reticulum requires dephosphorylation at Tyr-10 and Tyr-30.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P01100
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
aging [GO:0007568];
cellular response to calcium ion [GO:0071277];
cellular response to extracellular stimulus [GO:0031668];
cellular response to hormone stimulus [GO:0032870];
cellular response to reactive oxygen species [GO:0034614];
conditioned taste aversion [GO:0001661];
DNA methylation [GO:0006306];
Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway [GO:0038095];
female pregnancy [GO:0007565];
inflammatory response [GO:0006954];
nervous system development [GO:0007399];
positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation [GO:0045672];
positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:1902895];
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045893];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity [GO:0051090];
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0006357];
response to cAMP [GO:0051591];
response to cold [GO:0009409];
response to corticosterone [GO:0051412];
response to cytokine [GO:0034097];
response to drug [GO:0042493];
response to gravity [GO:0009629];
response to immobilization stress [GO:0035902];
response to light stimulus [GO:0009416];
response to lipopolysaccharide [GO:0032496];
response to muscle stretch [GO:0035994];
response to progesterone [GO:0032570];
response to toxic substance [GO:0009636];
skeletal muscle cell differentiation [GO:0035914];
sleep [GO:0030431];
SMAD protein signal transduction [GO:0060395];
transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0006366];
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway [GO:0007179]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
chromatin binding [GO:0003682];
RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0000978];
RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0000979];
R-SMAD binding [GO:0070412];
transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding [GO:0001077];
transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding [GO:0000982];
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0003700];
transcription factor binding [GO:0008134];
transcription regulatory region DNA binding [GO:0044212]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829];
endoplasmic reticulum [GO:0005783];
membrane [GO:0016020];
neuron projection [GO:0043005];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
transcription factor complex [GO:0005667]
Protein-protein interaction108636
Phylogenetic treeP01100
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD32.970477561709667.91502047792214e-076.27539130159087e-06
AZA vs. DISU0.4433157352230630.4465290952743310.918441413301616
AZA vs. IL7-0.3816925125107080.6349896538775410.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. CD3-2.54401487133156.8757523141727e-076.91428221373177e-06
DISU vs. IL7-0.8315308698113630.2711302948635230.658108831799895
DISU vs. SAHA-0.3637116352803580.41746593148230.771789628725435
DMSO vs. AZA0.2635134248524810.6784243359065581
DMSO vs. CD3-2.708454149208214.30210348267845e-062.68480484534179e-05
DMSO vs. DISU-0.1756564243073550.7568340707088540.969857060964769
DMSO vs. IL7-0.6383876809428360.4221267124142670.854003087820276
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1952466099175520.7059703554461470.911868291646287
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.5027390444116950.4423434481796260.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.5540588670104860.03985131924567190.780904411614149
IL7 vs. CD3-3.352658075834943.3784826819705e-050.000225426602325548
SAHA vs. CD3-2.916499281754212.25843788115299e-115.44554541903608e-10
SAHA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
1.131 0.01539

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock 1.663 6.01E-08 2.65E-06
Infected vs. Bystander 2.081 1.01E-09 5.64E-08
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change 1.53638949
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 1.46221 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
209189_at 1.67 No downregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB08813 Nadroparin approved unknown inhibitor
DB00852 Pseudoephedrine approved unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1A02 X-ray 2.7Å F=138-193.
1FOS X-ray 3.0Å E/G=139-200.
1S9K X-ray 3.1Å D=140-192.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat enhances 16690925
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 interacts with 16001969
Nef interacts with 24658403
Vpr regulated by 24225433
Tat activates 10799874
Tat upregulates 20869948
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor activates 7642615
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 inhibits 7957556
Tat interacts with 15258149
matrix interacts with 18042260
Nef downregulates 8151786
Vpu activates 24551192
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 upregulates 10027715
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 activates 8621941
Nef activates 10388555
Vpr activates 16243842
Tat requires 18097055

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa01522 Endocrine resistance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04010 MAPK signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04024 cAMP signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04210 Apoptosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04380 Osteoclast differentiation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04620 Toll-like receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04657 IL-17 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04658 Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04659 Th17 cell differentiation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04660 T cell receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04662 B cell receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04668 TNF signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04713 Circadian entrainment - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04725 Cholinergic synapse - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04728 Dopaminergic synapse - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04915 Estrogen signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04917 Prolactin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04921 Oxytocin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05031 Amphetamine addiction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05132 Salmonella infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05133 Pertussis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05140 Leishmaniasis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05142 Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05161 Hepatitis B - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05166 HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05168 Herpes simplex infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05200 Pathways in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05210 Colorectal cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05224 Breast cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05231 Choline metabolism in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05323 Rheumatoid arthritis - Homo sapiens (human)