Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001001
UniProt IDO60427
Primary gene name(s)FADS1
Synonym gene name(s)FADSD5
Protein nameFatty acid desaturase 1
Protein functionIsoform 2 does not exhibit any catalytic activity toward 20:3n-6, but it may enhance FADS2 activity, By similarity. Isoform 1 is a component of a lipid metabolic pathway that catalyzes biosynthesis of highly unsaturated fatty acids, HUFA from precursor essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFA linoleic acid, LA, 18:2n-6 and alpha-linolenic acid, ALA, 18:3n-3. Catalyzes the desaturation of dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid, DHGLA, 20:3n-6 and eicosatetraenoic acid, 20:4n-3 to generate arachidonic acid, AA, 20:4n-6 and eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA(20:5n-3, respectively. {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10601301, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10769175}.
Subcellular locationIsoform 1: Endoplasmic reticulum membrane {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:A4UVI1};
Multi-pass membrane protein {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:A4UVI1}. Mitochondrion {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22619218}.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 2: Endoplasmic reticulum membrane {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:A4UVI1};
Multi-pass membrane protein {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:A4UVI1}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: O60427
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
alpha-linolenic acid metabolic process [GO:0036109];
cell-cell signaling [GO:0007267];
cellular response to starvation [GO:0009267];
icosanoid biosynthetic process [GO:0046456];
linoleic acid metabolic process [GO:0043651];
phospholipid biosynthetic process [GO:0008654];
regulation of cell differentiation [GO:0045595];
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006355];
unsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic process [GO:0006636]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
C-5 sterol desaturase activity [GO:0000248];
omega-6 fatty acid desaturase activity [GO:0045485];
oxidoreductase activity [GO:0016491]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
endoplasmic reticulum membrane [GO:0005789];
integral component of membrane [GO:0016021];
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO:0043231];
membrane [GO:0016020];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739]
Protein-protein interaction110180
Phylogenetic treeO60427
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.1474479770349240.6554690907034030.749903608249711
AZA vs. DISU0.03561390859049240.8891305248346820.993090807006372
AZA vs. IL70.1600430257721870.4141229490510730.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.4905453329231810.04747697538816710.262726845448323
DISU vs. CD30.1717871258076470.6378467334171710.742463448612389
DISU vs. IL70.1145766367959280.6522180032414970.899264382748951
DISU vs. SAHA0.4562902794402440.1208830587862820.446307834142102
DMSO vs. AZA0.02994521752910460.8618335361651591
DMSO vs. CD30.1665786286255880.6054511865665290.700278090259098
DMSO vs. DISU-0.007678221869148010.9751321944645070.995550083527576
DMSO vs. IL70.1375915146778460.4530072209871040.870758796926069
DMSO vs. SAHA0.4548951503794970.05683914991335240.272202995978435
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1602571143237920.7978184701971350.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-7.89550227586435e-050.9996337019122330.999863937835826
IL7 vs. CD30.3136123796140670.3346590925178620.473156036161874
SAHA vs. CD30.6139971783912720.08440692741087330.15205728747984
SAHA vs. IL70.3278515194597140.1842239819502190.413304406000536
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.7553 0.01579

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.2377 0.414008
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.036 1.007 1.21 1.141 0.941
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00132 Alpha-Linolenic Acid approved, nutraceutical yes ligand
DB00159 Icosapent approved, nutraceutical unknown agonist

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa01040 Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01212 Fatty acid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)