Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000996
UniProt IDQ16394
Primary gene name(s)EXT1
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameExostosin-1
Protein functionGlycosyltransferase required for the biosynthesis of heparan-sulfate. The EXT1/EXT2 complex possesses substantially higher glycosyltransferase activity than EXT1 or EXT2 alone. Appears to be a tumor suppressor. Required for the exosomal release of SDCBP, CD63 and syndecan, PubMed:22660413. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11518722, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22660413}.
Subcellular locationEndoplasmic reticulum membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10679296};
Single-pass type II membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10679296}. Golgi apparatus membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10679296};
Single-pass type II membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10679296}. Note=The EXT1/EXT2 complex is localized in the Golgi apparatus.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q16394
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
axon guidance [GO:0007411];
cellular polysaccharide biosynthetic process [GO:0033692];
embryonic skeletal joint development [GO:0072498];
endoderm development [GO:0007492];
gastrulation [GO:0007369];
glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic process [GO:0006024];
heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process [GO:0015012];
heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process, polysaccharide chain biosynthetic process [GO:0015014];
mesoderm development [GO:0007498];
olfactory bulb development [GO:0021772];
ossification [GO:0001503];
protein glycosylation [GO:0006486];
signal transduction [GO:0007165];
skeletal system development [GO:0001501]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity [GO:0008375];
glucuronosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl-proteoglycan 4-alpha-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity [GO:0050508];
glucuronosyltransferase activity [GO:0015020];
heparan sulfate N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity [GO:0042328];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
N-acetylglucosaminyl-proteoglycan 4-beta-glucuronosyltransferase activity [GO:0050509];
protein heterodimerization activity [GO:0046982];
protein homodimerization activity [GO:0042803];
transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups [GO:0016757]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
endoplasmic reticulum [GO:0005783];
endoplasmic reticulum membrane [GO:0005789];
Golgi apparatus [GO:0005794];
Golgi membrane [GO:0000139];
integral component of endoplasmic reticulum membrane [GO:0030176];
integral component of membrane [GO:0016021]
Protein-protein interaction108432
Phylogenetic treeQ16394
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.8898544499720860.00815253126071980.0219654900181567
AZA vs. DISU-0.3178981216164190.2210508389643890.81043274432747
AZA vs. IL7-0.134317525030340.5001750975782680.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.5240169034256730.03580696279627040.221483035367657
DISU vs. CD30.5611545672720440.1268807119404460.224853027485338
DISU vs. IL70.1746770647986450.4989422881527790.825455991429231
DISU vs. SAHA0.8438240594664460.005166366780386290.0664921552068333
DMSO vs. AZA-0.0690669117725790.6940640547501821
DMSO vs. CD30.8114834605638990.01327783134497770.0317156380548739
DMSO vs. DISU0.2475695009324420.3556555080471770.845695250833134
DMSO vs. IL7-0.05800078921325140.7560684465597870.951841190064606
DMSO vs. SAHA0.586992063476050.01505731519860430.117033933655578
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.03230364251390540.9591622262774060.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.2355791271376820.1673742059777550.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.762754823614940.02049510689772260.0533176987002715
SAHA vs. CD31.390302649865540.000164960762161770.000744521918471959
SAHA vs. IL70.6564464542821330.008537967488373540.0562505777621253
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.147811 0.400443
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
201995_at 1.48 No downregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00534 Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - heparan sulfate / heparin - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)