Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000969
UniProt IDP07814
Primary gene name(s)EPRS
Synonym gene name(s)GLNS, PARS, QARS, QPRS
Protein nameBifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligase
Protein functionCatalyzes the attachment of the cognate amino acid to the corresponding tRNA in a two-step reaction: the amino acid is first activated by ATP to form a covalent intermediate with AMP and is then transferred to the acceptor end of the cognate tRNA. Component of the GAIT, gamma interferon-activated inhibitor of translation complex which mediates interferon-gamma-induced transcript-selective translation inhibition in inflammation processes. Upon interferon-gamma activation and subsequent phosphorylation dissociates from the multisynthetase complex and assembles into the GAIT complex which binds to stem loop-containing GAIT elements in the 3'-UTR of diverse inflammatory mRNAs, such as ceruplasmin and suppresses their translation. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15479637, ECO:0000269|PubMed:1756734, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23071094}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000305}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P07814
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cellular response to interferon-gamma [GO:0071346];
glutamyl-tRNA aminoacylation [GO:0006424];
negative regulation of translation [GO:0017148];
prolyl-tRNA aminoacylation [GO:0006433];
protein complex assembly [GO:0006461];
tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation [GO:0006418]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
glutamate-tRNA ligase activity [GO:0004818];
GTPase binding [GO:0051020];
proline-tRNA ligase activity [GO:0004827];
RNA stem-loop binding [GO:0035613]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase multienzyme complex [GO:0017101];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
GAIT complex [GO:0097452];
intracellular ribonucleoprotein complex [GO:0030529];
membrane [GO:0016020]
Protein-protein interaction108372
Phylogenetic treeP07814
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.7964661226063970.01548924038252510.0377390609514093
AZA vs. DISU-0.2666451032929260.2913646285546130.857316105959836
AZA vs. IL70.3077951016356210.1086846243906110.857786153178504
AZA vs. SAHA-0.09625588485394690.6927741766820230.91259966261512
DISU vs. CD3-1.075261665673150.003344588517579130.0116166652797207
DISU vs. IL70.5655969290659620.02498160421299840.201305617963771
DISU vs. SAHA0.1710259031254910.5566528498894070.854098701632466
DMSO vs. AZA-0.1043671871569480.5320320103344781
DMSO vs. CD3-0.9110317256182640.004648472675236490.0128753890149729
DMSO vs. DISU0.1608263785335780.5092684690549340.911454798581442
DMSO vs. IL70.4192465364476730.01957111650121190.288966289182928
DMSO vs. SAHA0.0004678681636821370.9984153834500590.999591108143985
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.04734792398654420.9393317102874270.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.009598963896244830.9535237706451420.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.4802454646566780.1350994600644670.238924576035635
SAHA vs. CD3-0.9183199058983620.009993183696261340.0256335792855589
SAHA vs. IL7-0.4081817814786810.09387863678826740.27714973970747
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.0361102 0.902205
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.019 0.962 0.956 0.96 0.883
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00172 L-Proline approved, nutraceutical unknown unknown
DB02510 &,39;5&,39;-O-(N-(L-Prolyl)-Sulfamoyl)Adenosine experimental unknown unknown
DB02684 5&,39;-O-(N-(L-Cysteinyl)-Sulfamoyl)Adenosine experimental unknown unknown
DB03376 &,39;5&,39;-O-(N-(L-Alanyl)-Sulfamoyl)Adenosine experimental unknown unknown
DB00142 L-Glutamic Acid nutraceutical unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1FYJ NMR - A=749-805.
4HVC X-ray 2.0Å A/B=1003-1512.
4K86 X-ray 2.4Å A=1000-1512.
4K87 X-ray 2.3Å A=1000-1512.
4K88 X-ray 2.6Å A=1000-1512.
5A1N X-ray 2.1Å A=1-175.
5A34 X-ray 2.6Å A/C/E/G=1-175.
5A5H X-ray 2.3Å A/C/E/G=1-175.
5BMU X-ray 2.6Å B/D/F/H=1-175.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Pr55(Gag) incorporates 25631074
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 complexes with 23125841
Gag-Pol complexes with 23125841
matrix interacts with 22190034
Pr55(Gag) complexes with 23125841
Nef complexes with 23125841

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00860 Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00970 Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)