Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000906
UniProt IDP18146
Primary gene name(s)EGR1
Synonym gene name(s)KROX24, ZNF225
Protein nameEarly growth response protein 1
Protein functionTranscriptional regulator, PubMed:20121949. Recognizes and binds to the DNA sequence 5'-GCG(T/GGGGCG-3'(EGR-site in the promoter region of target genes, By similarity. Binds double-stranded target DNA, irrespective of the cytosine methylation status, PubMed:25258363, PubMed:25999311. Regulates the transcription of numerous target genes, and thereby plays an important role in regulating the response to growth factors, DNA damage, and ischemia. Plays a role in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation and cell death. Activates expression of p53/TP53 and TGFB1, and thereby helps prevent tumor formation. Required for normal progress through mitosis and normal proliferation of hepatocytes after partial hepatectomy. Mediates responses to ischemia and hypoxia; regulates the expression of proteins such as IL1B and CXCL2 that are involved in inflammatory processes and development of tissue damage after ischemia. Regulates biosynthesis of luteinizing hormone, LHB in the pituitary, By similarity. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P08046, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20121949, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25258363, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25999311}.
Subcellular locationNucleus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:20363028}. Cytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:20363028}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P18146
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
BMP signaling pathway [GO:0030509];
cellular response to gamma radiation [GO:0071480];
cellular response to heparin [GO:0071504];
cellular response to interleukin-8 [GO:0098759];
cellular response to mycophenolic acid [GO:0071506];
estrous cycle [GO:0044849];
glomerular mesangial cell proliferation [GO:0072110];
interleukin-1-mediated signaling pathway [GO:0070498];
negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway [GO:0090090];
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0000122];
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process [GO:0045080];
positive regulation of glomerular metanephric mesangial cell proliferation [GO:0072303];
positive regulation of hormone biosynthetic process [GO:0046886];
positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta biosynthetic process [GO:0050725];
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045893];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0042981];
regulation of progesterone biosynthetic process [GO:2000182];
regulation of protein sumoylation [GO:0033233];
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to hypoxia [GO:0061418];
response to glucose [GO:0009749];
response to hypoxia [GO:0001666];
response to insulin [GO:0032868];
response to ischemia [GO:0002931];
skeletal muscle cell differentiation [GO:0035914];
T cell differentiation [GO:0030217];
transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0006366];
type I interferon signaling pathway [GO:0060337]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
DNA binding [GO:0003677];
histone acetyltransferase binding [GO:0035035];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0000977];
sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0043565];
transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding [GO:0001077];
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0003700];
transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0000976]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction108278
Phylogenetic treeP18146
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD33.7420331566187700
AZA vs. DISU0.0161565642081470.968205524965570.997285288974472
AZA vs. IL70.07689076832505840.8664734160996080.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.7217324569533590.0284691664082120.193452452109563
DISU vs. CD3-3.7456366833974400
DISU vs. IL70.05732185328486860.8976508537235910.981048051481798
DISU vs. SAHA0.7064278933270970.02751206822340380.196788979684347
DMSO vs. AZA0.31495064575170.3191218244680031
DMSO vs. CD3-3.4452251705919800
DMSO vs. DISU0.2951224808657490.313012826129110.81781173295326
DMSO vs. IL7-0.2273801995751230.537147651271020.896696737481162
DMSO vs. SAHA0.4001835715620660.1329921293700030.437178097439702
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.3752253975421890.5592523179700960.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-1.032172477413015.53119994251006e-102.97776099762131e-07
IL7 vs. CD3-3.653844961544585.32907051820075e-152.09726057234569e-13
SAHA vs. CD3-3.048966155157953.44169137633799e-151.57648294958703e-13
SAHA vs. IL70.6378370952400370.09050150980766440.270893518435412
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.9491 0.02228

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock 1.573 1.10E-10 1.74E-08
Infected vs. Bystander 1.902 2.25E-12 4.53E-10
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change 1.736267345
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
-1.7 0.014726207 -1.5 0.027282036 -1.8 0.157650694
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 1.36382 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
4R2A X-ray 1.5Å A=335-423.
4R2C X-ray 1.8Å A=335-423.
4R2D X-ray 2.0Å A=335-423.
4X9J X-ray 1.4Å A=335-423.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat cooperates with 20578042
Tat upregulates 19050264
Tat binds 11909874
Tat downregulates 18247371
Tat activated by 21368226

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04933 AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05020 Prion diseases - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05166 HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)