Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000868
UniProt IDQ03001
Primary gene name(s)DST
Synonym gene name(s)BP230, BP240, BPAG1, DMH, DT, KIAA0728
Protein nameDystonin
Protein functionCytoskeletal linker protein. Acts as an integrator of intermediate filaments, actin and microtubule cytoskeleton networks. Required for anchoring either intermediate filaments to the actin cytoskeleton in neural and muscle cells or keratin-containing intermediate filaments to hemidesmosomes in epithelial cells. The proteins may self-aggregate to form filaments or a two-dimensional mesh.; FUNCTION: Isoform 3: plays a structural role in the assembly of hemidesmosomes of epithelial cells; anchors keratin-containing intermediate filaments to the inner plaque of hemidesmosomes. Required for the regulation of keratinocyte polarity and motility; mediates integrin ITGB4 regulation of RAC1 activity.; FUNCTION: Isoform 6: required for bundling actin filaments around the nucleus. {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10428034, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12482924, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19403692}.; FUNCTION: Isoform 7: regulates the organization and stability of the microtubule network of sensory neurons to allow axonal transport.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm, cytoskeleton {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11751855, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19932097}. Note=Associates with intermediate filaments, acin and microtubule cytoskeletons. Localizes to actin stress fibers and to actin-rich ruffling at the cortex of cells, By similarity. Associated at the growing distal tip of microtubules. {ECO:0000250}.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 1: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton {ECO:0000250}. Cytoplasm, myofibril, sarcomere, Z line. Cytoplasm, myofibril, sarcomere, H zone {ECO:0000250}. Note=Localizes to microtubules and actin microfilaments throughout the cytoplasm and at focal contact attachments at the plasma membrane. {ECO:0000250}.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 2: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton {ECO:0000250}. Note=Colocalizes both cortical and cytoplasmic actin filaments. {ECO:0000250}.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 3: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Cell junction, hemidesmosome. Note=Localizes to actin and intermediate filaments cytoskeletons, By similarity. Colocalizes with the epidermal KRT5-KRT14 intermediate filaments network of keratins. Colocalizes with ITGB4 at the leading edge of migrating keratinocytes. {ECO:0000250}.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 6: Nucleus {ECO:0000250}. Nucleus envelope {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10428034}. Membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10428034};
Single-pass membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10428034}. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane {ECO:0000250};
Single-pass membrane protein {ECO:0000250}. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10428034}. Note=Localizes to actin and intermediate filaments cytoskeletons. Localizes to central actin stress fibers around the nucleus and is excluded form focal contact sites in myoblast cells. Translocates to the nucleus, By similarity. Associates with actin cytoskeleton in sensory neurons. {ECO:0000250}.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 7: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10428034}. Cell projection, axon {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10428034}. Membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10428034}. Note=Associates with axonal microtubules and intermediate filaments, but not with actin cytoskeleton, in sensory neurons.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 8: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton {ECO:0000250}. Cytoplasm, cell cortex {ECO:0000250}. Cell membrane {ECO:0000250};
Lipid-anchor {ECO:0000250}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q03001
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cell adhesion [GO:0007155];
cell motility [GO:0048870];
cytoskeleton organization [GO:0007010];
hemidesmosome assembly [GO:0031581];
integrin-mediated signaling pathway [GO:0007229];
intermediate filament cytoskeleton organization [GO:0045104];
maintenance of cell polarity [GO:0030011];
microtubule cytoskeleton organization [GO:0000226];
response to wounding [GO:0009611]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
calcium ion binding [GO:0005509];
integrin binding [GO:0005178];
microtubule plus-end binding [GO:0051010];
protein C-terminus binding [GO:0008022];
protein homodimerization activity [GO:0042803]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
actin cytoskeleton [GO:0015629];
axon [GO:0030424];
basal plasma membrane [GO:0009925];
basement membrane [GO:0005604];
cell cortex [GO:0005938];
cell leading edge [GO:0031252];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytoplasmic, membrane-bounded vesicle [GO:0016023];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
endoplasmic reticulum membrane [GO:0005789];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
focal adhesion [GO:0005925];
hemidesmosome [GO:0030056];
H zone [GO:0031673];
integral component of membrane [GO:0016021];
intermediate filament [GO:0005882];
intermediate filament cytoskeleton [GO:0045111];
microtubule cytoskeleton [GO:0015630];
microtubule plus-end [GO:0035371];
nuclear envelope [GO:0005635];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
Z disc [GO:0030018]
Protein-protein interaction107135
Phylogenetic treeQ03001
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-1.334141945560030.006210351562376150.0173949858294245
AZA vs. DISU0.04256661540085410.9356861162485360.995042856396371
AZA vs. IL7-0.1859277438011550.7040179243567860.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.1567858059115650.7767907351836260.941353350035522
DISU vs. CD31.36065189529010.001428817883022960.00561470301582067
DISU vs. IL7-0.2370401915773640.5911833929306430.873049534524828
DISU vs. SAHA-0.198490770439490.6989226934214110.910635902970964
DMSO vs. AZA0.04312361670156430.9332285973286611
DMSO vs. CD31.362162232429670.0007159078855306640.00255390771856961
DMSO vs. DISU-0.002503912422418680.9957193265655370.998967462308944
DMSO vs. IL7-0.2212158921337820.6009694300730890.912531643669603
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.2071474116798740.6764337337557150.897845339712122
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.187545210162380.7651550259480520.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.01808380387587850.9697774134272740.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.156177773583810.002075846805412280.00796163839643241
SAHA vs. CD31.149510536518420.01304832938280850.0320774207158864
SAHA vs. IL70.02373339018852920.9598804407951980.984904891739624
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 1.17814 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
3GJO X-ray 2.5Å E/F/G/H=7541-7570.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found