Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000848
UniProt IDP26358
Primary gene name(s)DNMT1
Synonym gene name(s)AIM, CXXC9, DNMT
Protein nameDNA
Protein functionMethylates CpG residues. Preferentially methylates hemimethylated DNA. Associates with DNA replication sites in S phase maintaining the methylation pattern in the newly synthesized strand, that is essential for epigenetic inheritance. Associates with chromatin during G2 and M phases to maintain DNA methylation independently of replication. It is responsible for maintaining methylation patterns established in development. DNA methylation is coordinated with methylation of histones. Mediates transcriptional repression by direct binding to HDAC2. In association with DNMT3B and via the recruitment of CTCFL/BORIS, involved in activation of BAG1 gene expression by modulating dimethylation of promoter histone H3 at H3K4 and H3K9. Probably forms a corepressor complex required for activated KRAS-mediated promoter hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes, TSGs or other tumor-related genes in colorectal cancer, CRC cells, PubMed:24623306. Also required to maintain a transcriptionally repressive state of genes in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells, ESCs, PubMed:24623306. Associates at promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes, TSGs leading to their gene silencing, PubMed:24623306. Promotes tumor growth, PubMed:24623306. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16357870, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18413740, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18754681, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24623306}.
Subcellular locationNucleus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12145218}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P26358
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cellular response to amino acid stimulus [GO:0071230];
covalent chromatin modification [GO:0016569];
DNA methylation [GO:0006306];
DNA methylation involved in embryo development [GO:0043045];
gene silencing [GO:0016458];
maintenance of DNA methylation [GO:0010216];
negative regulation of gene expression, epigenetic [GO:0045814];
negative regulation of histone H3-K9 methylation [GO:0051573];
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0000122];
positive regulation of gene expression [GO:0010628];
positive regulation of histone H3-K4 methylation [GO:0051571];
positive regulation of methylation-dependent chromatin silencing [GO:0090309];
Ras protein signal transduction [GO:0007265];
regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0042127];
transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006351]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
DNA, cytosine-5--methyltransferase activity [GO:0003886];
DNA, cytosine-5--methyltransferase activity, acting on CpG substrates [GO:0051718];
DNA binding [GO:0003677];
DNA-methyltransferase activity [GO:0009008];
double-stranded DNA binding [GO:0003690];
methyl-CpG binding [GO:0008327];
promoter-specific chromatin binding [GO:1990841];
RNA binding [GO:0003723];
unmethylated CpG binding [GO:0045322];
zinc ion binding [GO:0008270]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
neuronal cell body [GO:0043025];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
pericentric heterochromatin [GO:0005721];
protein complex [GO:0043234];
replication fork [GO:0005657]
Protein-protein interaction108123
Phylogenetic treeP26358
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.9856327835296480.0136521676033340.0339546980391831
AZA vs. DISU-0.03117155656749820.9018361063895260.993937521279788
AZA vs. IL70.4293323246952560.02620063728262010.51827061123482
AZA vs. SAHA-0.3248834240719870.1832213441952980.546257623101249
DISU vs. CD3-1.029773450302760.009731436838631420.0283194196765441
DISU vs. IL70.4514642366394290.07422102821251970.362217049726699
DISU vs. SAHA-0.2916556010297850.3168578897425970.699244242705654
DMSO vs. AZA0.1088927102688930.5156752592433781
DMSO vs. CD3-0.8899465109213950.02377645010253990.0517245084180165
DMSO vs. DISU0.1377048538538860.5722148266773350.93085597337335
DMSO vs. IL70.3279752326361780.06859655997011130.500771497118367
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.4396399636750520.0625471686804860.288007448574276
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.2271392866850110.796079666291670.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.1956481967169360.236457996769590.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.5492468709404420.1691790513639220.284316628521396
SAHA vs. CD3-1.334860719886640.0008820026403145720.00321290301898492
SAHA vs. IL7-0.7572391274479610.002027143519116260.0198294363446843
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.167656 0.270258
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.934 0.998 0.819 0.69 0.975
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
0.83 0.0057 0.47 0.2379 0.27 0.9519 DNA recombination; repair and maintenance (4hpi)
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB01099 Flucytosine approved unknown other
DB01035 Procainamide approved unknown other
DB01262 Decitabine approved, investigational yes inhibitor
DB00928 Azacitidine approved, investigational yes inhibitor

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
3EPZ X-ray 2.3Å A/B=351-600.
3PTA X-ray 3.6Å A=646-1600.
3SWR X-ray 2.4Å A=601-1600.
4WXX X-ray 2.6Å A/B=351-1600.
4YOC X-ray 2.9Å A=600-1600.
4Z96 X-ray 2.8Å C=1098-1129.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat upregulates 25705251

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00270 Cysteine and methionine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05206 MicroRNAs in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)