Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000804
UniProt IDQ02127
Primary gene name(s)DHODH
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameDihydroorotate dehydrogenase
Protein functionCatalyzes the conversion of dihydroorotate to orotate with quinone as electron acceptor.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion inner membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10727948};
Single-pass membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10727948}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q02127
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
'de novo' pyrimidine nucleobase biosynthetic process [GO:0006207];
'de novo' UMP biosynthetic process [GO:0044205];
female pregnancy [GO:0007565];
lactation [GO:0007595];
positive regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043065];
pyrimidine nucleoside biosynthetic process [GO:0046134];
regulation of mitochondrial fission [GO:0090140];
response to caffeine [GO:0031000];
response to drug [GO:0042493];
response to L-arginine [GO:1903576];
response to starvation [GO:0042594]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
dihydroorotate dehydrogenase activity [GO:0004152];
drug binding [GO:0008144];
FMN binding [GO:0010181];
ubiquinone binding [GO:0048039]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
integral component of membrane [GO:0016021];
mitochondrial inner membrane [GO:0005743];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
neuronal cell body [GO:0043025];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654]
Protein-protein interaction108068
Phylogenetic treeQ02127
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.188301741980970.0003740157205895930.00153852754932488
AZA vs. DISU-0.8069627666763850.002040390633993310.114753068335128
AZA vs. IL70.4102019024685020.03889876832253570.603832270778147
AZA vs. SAHA-0.6392093661930740.01162532956542430.107773811727679
DISU vs. CD3-2.007089026847871.10827636179422e-071.36154505930612e-06
DISU vs. IL71.207690011692793.6443980947487e-060.000384190918030326
DISU vs. SAHA0.1682080488171580.5786277929923050.863757871254658
DMSO vs. AZA0.07334899988829560.6764879270921441
DMSO vs. CD3-1.127088323620980.000543799493471830.00201236535719802
DMSO vs. DISU0.8781542366324840.0005163776397149040.0452430873866489
DMSO vs. IL70.3448399595512260.06352677402886970.483425602466033
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.7186916595163640.00323481692627570.0407284259781963
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.01921505678287920.9754309270528050.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.1030607073545960.5524479092496820.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.771300515391240.01750831850140740.0471929336143981
SAHA vs. CD3-1.851955995378715.43180234124918e-074.72344265912436e-06
SAHA vs. IL7-1.053513972711013.19341504538828e-050.000778658771462118
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.421903 0.013889
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.001 0.986 0.956 0.915 0.819
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB01117 Atovaquone approved unknown inhibitor
DB02262 Orotic Acid experimental unknown unknown
DB02613 Decylamine-N,N-Dimethyl-N-Oxide experimental unknown unknown
DB03247 Riboflavin Monophosphate experimental unknown unknown
DB03480 Brequinar Analog experimental unknown unknown
DB03523 6-Fluoro-2-(2&,39;-Fluoro-1,1&,39;-Biphenyl-4-Yl)-3-Methylquinoline-4-Carboxylic Acid experimental unknown unknown
DB03805 Antiproliferative Agent A771726 experimental unknown unknown
DB01097 Leflunomide approved, investigational yes inhibitor
DB05125 SC12267 investigational unknown unknown
DB04583 5-(AMINOCARBONYL)-1,1&,39;:4&,39;,1&,39;&,39;-TERPHENYL-3-CARBOXYLICACID experimental unknown unknown
DB04281 2-[4-(4-Chlorophenyl)Cyclohexylidene]-3,4-Dihydroxy-1(2h)-Naphthalenone experimental unknown unknown
DB07443 (2Z)-N-biphenyl-4-yl-2-cyano-3-hydroxybut-2-enamide experimental unknown unknown
DB07559 (2Z)-2-cyano-N-(2,2&,39;-dichlorobiphenyl-4-yl)-3-hydroxybut-2-enamide experimental unknown unknown
DB07561 (2Z)-2-cyano-N-(3&,39;-ethoxybiphenyl-4-yl)-3-hydroxybut-2-enamide experimental unknown unknown
DB07646 UNDECYLAMINE-N,N-DIMETHYL-N-OXIDE experimental unknown unknown
DB08006 N-anthracen-2-yl-5-methyl[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-amine experimental unknown unknown
DB08008 5-methyl-N-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-amine experimental unknown unknown
DB04147 Lauryl Dimethylamine-N-Oxide experimental unknown unknown
DB08169 (2Z)-N-biphenyl-4-yl-2-cyano-3-cyclopropyl-3-hydroxyprop-2-enamide experimental unknown unknown
DB08172 (2Z)-N-(3-chloro-2&,39;-methoxybiphenyl-4-yl)-2-cyano-3-hydroxybut-2-enamide experimental unknown unknown
DB08249 3,6,9,12,15-PENTAOXATRICOSAN-1-OL experimental unknown unknown
DB08880 Teriflunomide approved unknown inhibitor

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1D3G X-ray 1.6Å A=29-395.
1D3H X-ray 1.8Å A=29-395.
2B0M X-ray 2.0Å A=29-395.
2BXV X-ray 2.1Å A=29-395.
2FPT X-ray 2.4Å A=29-395.
2FPV X-ray 1.8Å A=29-395.
2FPY X-ray 2.0Å A=29-395.
2FQI X-ray 1.9Å A=29-395.
2PRH X-ray 2.4Å A=29-395.
2PRL X-ray 2.1Å A=29-395.
2PRM X-ray 3.0Å A=29-395.
2WV8 X-ray 1.9Å A=31-395.
3F1Q X-ray 2.0Å A=29-395.
3FJ6 X-ray 1.8Å A=29-395.
3FJL X-ray 1.9Å A=29-395.
3G0U X-ray 2.0Å A=29-395.
3G0X X-ray 1.8Å A=29-395.
3KVJ X-ray 1.9Å A=29-395.
3KVK X-ray 2.0Å A=29-395.
3KVL X-ray 1.8Å A=29-395.
3KVM X-ray 2.0Å A=29-395.
3U2O X-ray 2.1Å A=1-395.
3W7R X-ray 1.6Å A=29-395.
3ZWS X-ray 1.6Å A=29-395.
3ZWT X-ray 1.5Å A=29-395.
4IGH X-ray 1.3Å A=32-395.
4JGD X-ray 2.0Å A=29-395.
4JS3 X-ray 2.0Å A=29-395.
4JTS X-ray 2.2Å A=29-395.
4JTT X-ray 2.1Å A=29-395.
4JTU X-ray 1.9Å A=29-395.
4LS0 X-ray 2.0Å A=29-395.
4LS1 X-ray 2.2Å A=29-395.
4LS2 X-ray 2.2Å A=29-395.
4OQV X-ray 1.2Å A=32-395.
4RK8 X-ray 2.2Å A=29-395.
4RKA X-ray 2.7Å A=29-395.
4RLI X-ray 2.5Å A=29-395.
4RR4 X-ray 2.3Å A=29-395.
4YLW X-ray 1.7Å A=29-395.
4ZL1 X-ray 1.8Å A=29-395.
4ZMG X-ray 1.9Å A=29-395.
5HIN X-ray 1.6Å A=29-395.
5HQE X-ray 1.6Å A=29-395.
5K9C X-ray 1.6Å A=29-395.
5K9D X-ray 1.7Å A=29-395.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00240 Pyrimidine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)