Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000740
UniProt IDQ99418
Primary gene name(s)CYTH2
Synonym gene name(s)ARNO, PSCD2, PSCD2L
Protein nameCytohesin-2
Protein functionActs as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor, GEF. Promotes guanine-nucleotide exchange on ARF1, ARF3 and ARF6. Promotes the activation of ARF factors through replacement of GDP with GTP. The cell membrane form, in association with ARL4 proteins, recruits ARF6 to the plasma membrane. Involved in neurite growth, By similarity. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63034, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17398095}.
Subcellular locationCell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17398095};
Peripheral membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17398095}. Cytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17398095}. Cell projection {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63034}. Cell projection, growth cone {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63034}. Note=Both isoform 1 and isoform 2 are recruited to the cell membrane through its association with ARL4A, ARL4C and ARL4D. They require also interaction with phosphoinositides for targeting to plasma membrane, PubMed:17398095. In differentiating neuroblastoma cells, colocalizes with CCDC120 in both neurite shaft and growth cone areas. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P63034, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17398095}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q99418
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
actin cytoskeleton organization [GO:0030036];
endocytosis [GO:0006897];
regulation of ARF protein signal transduction [GO:0032012]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ARF guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity [GO:0005086];
inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate binding [GO:0070679];
lipid binding [GO:0008289]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
Golgi membrane [GO:0000139];
growth cone [GO:0030426];
membrane [GO:0016020];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction114687
Phylogenetic treeQ99418
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.8990541616610930.006507028394874710.0180914834841453
AZA vs. DISU0.6125804675259540.0163565029114320.309357496721362
AZA vs. IL7-0.2059259268015850.2867028085996230.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.08157721054860920.7389194951917650.927345945085511
DISU vs. CD31.49831549267095.56476179709442e-050.000339608175422677
DISU vs. IL7-0.8281320490635640.001132715153362770.0299048702923709
DISU vs. SAHA-0.6914495614112980.01832819242076680.153580840646041
DMSO vs. AZA-4.76989090425137e-050.9997741958948111
DMSO vs. CD30.8872772533508250.005949458874572320.0159226501946051
DMSO vs. DISU-0.6144629406812940.01245434315167020.235665634501283
DMSO vs. IL7-0.1986334894184780.2718495456081250.769218388958909
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.08702335061463710.7127828003138740.914086928482846
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.3236862448398450.6046241659287280.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.01836941712468420.9117191163923990.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.6984605670950480.03076163665556840.0741890332500104
SAHA vs. CD30.7938013075799560.02580092734735330.0570284504436219
SAHA vs. IL70.1218534755812930.6177332433467370.808308238733395
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.0153517 0.977694
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB03401 D-Myo-Inositol-1,4,5-Triphosphate experimental unknown unknown
DB01942 Formic Acid experimental unknown unknown
DB04530 S,S-(2-Hydroxyethyl)Thiocysteine experimental unknown unknown
DB07348 1,6,7,8,9,11A,12,13,14,14A-DECAHYDRO-1,13-DIHYDROXY-6-METHYL-4H-CYCLOPENT[F]OXACYCLOTRIDECIN-4-ONE experimental unknown unknown
DB01863 Inositol 1,3,4,5-Tetrakisphosphate experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1PBV X-ray 2.0Å A=52-246.
1R8M X-ray 1.7Å E=50-252.
1R8Q X-ray 1.8Å E/F=50-252.
1R8S X-ray 1.4Å E=50-252.
1S9D X-ray 1.8Å E=50-252.
4JMI X-ray 1.5Å A=56-251.
4JMO X-ray 1.8Å A=56-251.
4JWL X-ray 1.9Å A=56-251.
4JXH X-ray 1.4Å A=56-251.
4L5M X-ray 1.8Å A=56-251.
4Z21 X-ray 2.0Å A=51-252.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04072 Phospholipase D signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04144 Endocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)