Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000734
UniProt IDP99999
Primary gene name(s)CYCS
Synonym gene name(s)CYC
Protein nameCytochrome c
Protein functionElectron carrier protein. The oxidized form of the cytochrome c heme group can accept an electron from the heme group of the cytochrome c1 subunit of cytochrome reductase. Cytochrome c then transfers this electron to the cytochrome oxidase complex, the final protein carrier in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain.; FUNCTION: Plays a role in apoptosis. Suppression of the anti-apoptotic members or activation of the pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family leads to altered mitochondrial membrane permeability resulting in release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Binding of cytochrome c to Apaf-1 triggers the activation of caspase-9, which then accelerates apoptosis by activating other caspases.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion intermembrane space. Note=Loosely associated with the inner membrane.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P99999
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process by cytochrome c [GO:0008635];
cellular respiration [GO:0045333];
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:0097193];
mitochondrial electron transport, cytochrome c to oxygen [GO:0006123];
mitochondrial electron transport, ubiquinol to cytochrome c [GO:0006122];
mitochondrion organization [GO:0007005];
protein dephosphorylation [GO:0006470];
response to reactive oxygen species [GO:0000302]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
electron transporter, transferring electrons from CoQH2-cytochrome c reductase complex and cytochrome c oxidase complex activity [GO:0045155];
heme binding [GO:0020037];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829];
mitochondrial inner membrane [GO:0005743];
mitochondrial intermembrane space [GO:0005758];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
protein phosphatase type 2A complex [GO:0000159];
respiratory chain [GO:0070469]
Protein-protein interaction119922
Phylogenetic treeP99999
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      Yes - Two siRNA pools inhibit HIV replication and inhibition of Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV LTR is not observed
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      Negatively associated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD32.355961848912746.87627732531837e-121.45560746976402e-10
AZA vs. DISU-0.03416417746264330.8924832819461080.993715710839834
AZA vs. IL70.4967564525063570.009933496505143190.321994823273168
AZA vs. SAHA-0.3183499158908520.192217892554630.55911479748068
DISU vs. CD3-2.403217136969192.78075007464906e-106.36070206756601e-09
DISU vs. IL70.5222597537557950.03854575979028060.257855254617818
DISU vs. SAHA-0.2834659779922280.3306752507269470.711284844417791
DMSO vs. AZA-0.07756162183430660.6434946778334661
DMSO vs. CD3-2.444988090363913.72701869366665e-138.7185615869702e-12
DMSO vs. DISU-0.04530360635633070.8525963178544340.983288169439528
DMSO vs. IL70.5816516226430580.001255407110985040.0668737180144858
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.2480183889636290.2929779789013330.644876751865341
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.2323149610034310.708531340620820.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.2286266172727270.1665450795106210.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.85027776702872.29220288305854e-083.19319538413506e-07
SAHA vs. CD3-2.699507533914926.61803944979056e-132.03538478588457e-11
SAHA vs. IL7-0.8187149364963510.0008342683871658260.0102075987566052
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change -1.102088757
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.741979 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.034 1.133 1.028 1.069 0.926
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB01017 Minocycline approved, investigational unknown negative modulator
DB02110 Protoporphyrin Ix Containing Co experimental unknown unknown
DB03934 Protoporphyrin Ix Containing Zn experimental unknown unknown
DB03317 Heme C experimental unknown unknown
DB03977 N-Trimethyllysine experimental unknown unknown
DB04249 Zinc Substituted Heme C experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1J3S NMR - A=2-105.
2N9I NMR - A=2-105.
2N9J NMR - A=2-105.
3NWV X-ray 1.9Å A/B/C/D=2-105.
3ZCF X-ray 1.6Å A/B/C/D=2-105.
3ZOO X-ray 1.3Å A/B/C/D=2-105.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Nef interacts with 24556695
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor induces release of 11739707
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 relocalizes 11193032
Tat upregulates 22632162
Tat induces release of 15691386
retropepsin interacts with 24886575
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 induces release of 12019321
HIV-1 virus replication enhanced by expression of human gene 18976975
Vpr induces release of 16520893
Tat interacts with 23364796
retropepsin induces release of 12404116

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00920 Sulfur metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01524 Platinum drug resistance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04115 p53 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04210 Apoptosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04215 Apoptosis - multiple species - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04932 Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05010 Alzheimer's disease - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05012 Parkinson's disease - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05014 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05016 Huntington's disease - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05134 Legionellosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05145 Toxoplasmosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05152 Tuberculosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05161 Hepatitis B - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05164 Influenza A - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05168 Herpes simplex infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05200 Pathways in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05210 Colorectal cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05222 Small cell lung cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05416 Viral myocarditis - Homo sapiens (human)