Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000722
UniProt IDQ14247
Primary gene name(s)CTTN
Synonym gene name(s)EMS1
Protein nameSrc substrate cortactin
Protein functionContributes to the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell shape, PubMed:21296879. Plays a role in the formation of lamellipodia and in cell migration. Plays a role in the regulation of neuron morphology, axon growth and formation of neuronal growth cones, By similarity. Through its interaction with CTTNBP2, involved in the regulation of neuronal spine density, By similarity. Plays a role in the invasiveness of cancer cells, and the formation of metastases, PubMed:16636290. Plays a role in focal adhesion assembly and turnover, By similarity. In complex with ABL1 and MYLK regulates cortical actin-based cytoskeletal rearrangement critical to sphingosine 1-phosphate, S1P-mediated endothelial cell, EC barrier enhancement, PubMed:20861316. Plays a role in intracellular protein transport and endocytosis, and in modulating the levels of potassium channels present at the cell membrane, PubMed:17959782. Plays a role in receptor-mediated endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits, By similarity. Required for stabilization of KCNH1 channels at the cell membrane, PubMed:23144454. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q60598, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q66HL2, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16636290, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17959782, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21296879, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23144454}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm, cytoskeleton {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12151401}. Cell projection, lamellipodium {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12151401}. Cell projection, ruffle. Cell projection, dendrite {ECO:0000250}. Cell projection {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q66HL2}. Cell membrane {ECO:0000305|PubMed:17959782};
Peripheral membrane protein {ECO:0000305};
Cytoplasmic side {ECO:0000305}. Cell projection, podosome {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q01406}. Cell junction {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q66HL2}. Cell junction, focal adhesion {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q66HL2}. Membrane, clathrin-coated pit {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q66HL2}. Cell projection, dendritic spine {ECO:0000250}. Cytoplasm, cell cortex {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12151401}. Note=Colocalizes transiently with PTK2/FAK1 at focal adhesions, By similarity. Associated with membrane ruffles and lamellipodia. In the presence of CTTNBP2NL, colocalizes with stress fibers, By similarity. In the presence of CTTNBP2, localizes at the cell cortex, By similarity. In response to neuronal activation by glutamate, redistributes from dendritic spines to the dendritic shaft, By similarity. Colocalizes with DNM2 at the basis of filopodia in hippocampus neuron growth zones, By similarity. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q60598, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q66HL2}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q14247
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
actin cytoskeleton reorganization [GO:0031532];
actin filament polymerization [GO:0030041];
cell motility [GO:0048870];
dendritic spine maintenance [GO:0097062];
focal adhesion assembly [GO:0048041];
intracellular protein transport [GO:0006886];
lamellipodium organization [GO:0097581];
negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:2001237];
neuron projection morphogenesis [GO:0048812];
positive regulation of actin filament polymerization [GO:0030838];
positive regulation of smooth muscle contraction [GO:0045987];
receptor-mediated endocytosis [GO:0006898];
regulation of axon extension [GO:0030516];
regulation of mitophagy [GO:1903146];
substrate-dependent cell migration, cell extension [GO:0006930]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
profilin binding [GO:0005522]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cell cortex [GO:0005938];
coated pit [GO:0005905];
cortical cytoskeleton [GO:0030863];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytoskeleton [GO:0005856];
dendritic spine [GO:0043197];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
focal adhesion [GO:0005925];
Golgi apparatus [GO:0005794];
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO:0043231];
lamellipodium [GO:0030027];
mitotic spindle midzone [GO:1990023];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
podosome [GO:0002102];
ruffle [GO:0001726];
voltage-gated potassium channel complex [GO:0008076]
Protein-protein interaction108332
Phylogenetic treeQ14247
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.353636413064610.006057891553966410.0170567049320721
AZA vs. DISU-0.1819996159886970.7770317527765870.976444104025318
AZA vs. IL7-0.4434363723615510.4220532919737330.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.3160621679264690.630579239105680.883150743313112
DISU vs. CD3-1.549275167791260.002867502039740730.0101777079696378
DISU vs. IL7-0.2705168901054720.6349538856717170.891519048621589
DISU vs. SAHA-0.1337943156081140.841639200625140.958718383732077
DMSO vs. AZA0.007315396650438870.99043510301341
DMSO vs. CD3-1.365351529905390.002863620629160350.00854435428368006
DMSO vs. DISU0.1849196315027920.7662761904109980.969857060964769
DMSO vs. IL7-0.4420139262568880.4020079987776210.846489249051434
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.3291612623662160.6051611656386580.867203948591824
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.222782561074540.7240600032479320.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.09128859031706290.8845709167810710.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.789342216535474.20115101196217e-063.5337025225059e-05
SAHA vs. CD3-1.697139630134310.001688969054585820.00560510100255633
SAHA vs. IL70.1225170210793720.8340636943365110.928147776283092
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.275928 0.160421
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.967 1.072 1.055 1.659 1.14
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1X69 NMR - A=485-550.
2D1X X-ray 1.9Å A/B/C/D=490-550.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Pr55(Gag) incorporates 25631074

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04530 Tight junction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05100 Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05130 Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05131 Shigellosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05205 Proteoglycans in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)