Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000717
UniProt IDP53634
Primary gene name(s)CTSC
Synonym gene name(s)CPPI
Protein nameDipeptidyl peptidase 1
Protein functionThiol protease. Has dipeptidylpeptidase activity. Active against a broad range of dipeptide substrates composed of both polar and hydrophobic amino acids. Proline cannot occupy the P1 position and arginine cannot occupy the P2 position of the substrate. Can act as both an exopeptidase and endopeptidase. Activates serine proteases such as elastase, cathepsin G and granzymes A and B. Can also activate neuraminidase and factor XIII. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:1586157}.
Subcellular locationLysosome.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P53634
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
aging [GO:0007568];
COPII vesicle coating [GO:0048208];
ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport [GO:0006888];
immune response [GO:0006955];
positive regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:2001235];
positive regulation of proteolysis involved in cellular protein catabolic process [GO:1903052];
proteolysis [GO:0006508];
proteolysis involved in cellular protein catabolic process [GO:0051603];
response to organic substance [GO:0010033];
T cell mediated cytotoxicity [GO:0001913]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
chaperone binding [GO:0051087];
chloride ion binding [GO:0031404];
cysteine-type endopeptidase activity [GO:0004197];
cysteine-type peptidase activity [GO:0008234];
peptidase activator activity involved in apoptotic process [GO:0016505];
phosphatase binding [GO:0019902];
serine-type endopeptidase activity [GO:0004252]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment membrane [GO:0033116];
endoplasmic reticulum lumen [GO:0005788];
ER to Golgi transport vesicle [GO:0030134];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
Golgi membrane [GO:0000139];
lysosome [GO:0005764];
membrane [GO:0016020]
Protein-protein interaction107502
Phylogenetic treeP53634
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      Yes - >4 <5 SD (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-1.293536295959020.0001020131248458120.000491855987740269
AZA vs. DISU-0.1083769738725660.6687944109351340.963061411533151
AZA vs. IL70.3112162000411350.1048170711695460.847135503345074
AZA vs. SAHA-0.1950665800206160.42311631360710.775960934258034
DISU vs. CD31.17287910055310.001541671221597210.00598947216349389
DISU vs. IL70.4105038595704990.1039782978355590.425469524517151
DISU vs. SAHA-0.08511228438651820.7706281166682040.935190945028303
DMSO vs. AZA-0.01855034480441940.9115377376634711
DMSO vs. CD31.263951294308769.9981256212911e-050.00045028927499178
DMSO vs. DISU0.08802340007679020.7186396871769270.963064442066846
DMSO vs. IL70.3370241491816690.06039433637211490.473204064869871
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1831544697801780.4363924530780890.77039600097691
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.06000568503387760.9231389500683310.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.00404027714437740.9804858567984760.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.612435717686679.79375712972796e-079.58579878028504e-06
SAHA vs. CD31.074136383946130.002655255461555210.00826601469804736
SAHA vs. IL7-0.5091910176031890.03659032750278910.148749351881619
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.690765 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.098 0.005

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.019 1.015 1.066 1.21 1.182
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
-1.79 0.0133 0 0.5714 0.23 0.8163 Protein Synthesis at 4; 8; and 20 hip
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1K3B X-ray 2.1Å A=25-143# B=231-394# C=395-463.
2DJF X-ray 2.0Å A=25-143# B=231-394# C=395-463.
2DJG X-ray 2.0Å A=25-143# B=231-394# C=395-463.
3PDF X-ray 1.8Å A=25-463.
4CDC X-ray 2.4Å A/D/G/J=25-143# B/E/H/K=230-394# C/F/I/L=395-463.
4CDD X-ray 2.3Å A/D=25-144# B/E=230-394# C/F=395-463.
4CDE X-ray 2.4Å A/D=25-143# B/E=230-394# C/F=395-463.
4CDF X-ray 2.2Å A/D=25-144# B/E=229-394# C/F=395-463.
4OEL X-ray 1.4Å A=25-394# B=395-463.
4OEM X-ray 1.5Å A=25-394# B=395-463.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat upregulates 24667918
HIV-1 virus replication inhibited by expression of human gene 22082156

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04142 Lysosome - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04210 Apoptosis - Homo sapiens (human)