Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000714
UniProt IDP35221
Primary gene name(s)CTNNA1
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameCatenin alpha-1
Protein functionAssociates with the cytoplasmic domain of a variety of cadherins. The association of catenins to cadherins produces a complex which is linked to the actin filament network, and which seems to be of primary importance for cadherins cell-adhesion properties. Can associate with both E- and N-cadherins. Originally believed to be a stable component of E-cadherin/catenin adhesion complexes and to mediate the linkage of cadherins to the actin cytoskeleton at adherens junctions. In contrast, cortical actin was found to be much more dynamic than E-cadherin/catenin complexes and CTNNA1 was shown not to bind to F-actin when assembled in the complex suggesting a different linkage between actin and adherens junctions components. The homodimeric form may regulate actin filament assembly and inhibit actin branching by competing with the Arp2/3 complex for binding to actin filaments. May play a crucial role in cell differentiation.
Subcellular locationIsoform 1: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Cell junction, adherens junction. Cell membrane;
Peripheral membrane protein;
Cytoplasmic side. Cell junction. Note=Found at cell-cell boundaries and probably at cell-matrix boundaries.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 3: Cell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:21708131};
Peripheral membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:21708131};
Cytoplasmic side {ECO:0000269|PubMed:21708131}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P35221
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
actin filament organization [GO:0007015];
adherens junction organization [GO:0034332];
aging [GO:0007568];
apical junction assembly [GO:0043297];
axon regeneration [GO:0031103];
cell adhesion [GO:0007155];
cellular protein localization [GO:0034613];
cellular response to indole-3-methanol [GO:0071681];
epithelial cell-cell adhesion [GO:0090136];
establishment or maintenance of cell polarity [GO:0007163];
gap junction assembly [GO:0016264];
male gonad development [GO:0008584];
negative regulation of cell motility [GO:2000146];
negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand [GO:2001240];
negative regulation of integrin-mediated signaling pathway [GO:2001045];
negative regulation of neuroblast proliferation [GO:0007406];
odontogenesis of dentin-containing tooth [GO:0042475];
ovarian follicle development [GO:0001541];
positive regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand [GO:2001241];
positive regulation of muscle cell differentiation [GO:0051149];
positive regulation of smoothened signaling pathway [GO:0045880];
protein heterooligomerization [GO:0051291];
response to estrogen [GO:0043627]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
beta-catenin binding [GO:0008013];
cadherin binding [GO:0045296];
gamma-catenin binding [GO:0045295];
poly(A RNA binding [GO:0044822];
structural molecule activity [GO:0005198];
vinculin binding [GO:0017166]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
acrosomal vesicle [GO:0001669];
actin cytoskeleton [GO:0015629];
catenin complex [GO:0016342];
cell-cell junction [GO:0005911];
cell junction [GO:0030054];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
flotillin complex [GO:0016600];
focal adhesion [GO:0005925];
Golgi apparatus [GO:0005794];
intercalated disc [GO:0014704];
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO:0043231];
lamellipodium [GO:0030027];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
zonula adherens [GO:0005915]
Protein-protein interaction107876
Phylogenetic treeP35221
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD33.167773713572161.20795696889608e-071.14217863457979e-06
AZA vs. DISU0.2911641153912960.2505218146291870.831594124314855
AZA vs. IL70.04186031629727360.8282616972947630.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.8806780394676360.000373184257465020.0103217972422527
DISU vs. CD3-2.889790331445431.35690539726507e-061.26025828455784e-05
DISU vs. IL7-0.2585573477053980.3053500989326960.689301099342677
DISU vs. SAHA0.5914682551129290.04457574477187710.261969651644484
DMSO vs. AZA0.00356705480587040.9831059594823741
DMSO vs. CD3-3.176138040539631.26054533478026e-071.08950748528196e-06
DMSO vs. DISU-0.2896259650839970.2359754606643960.752974892839797
DMSO vs. IL70.04561172431403060.8004651132541890.959270417912966
DMSO vs. SAHA0.870787525329840.0002802330782333270.00734503082096431
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.3366574746302360.7753883587378970.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.005882485163570220.9717476403326830.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-3.119183666179871.85136743269254e-072.13836485156894e-06
SAHA vs. CD3-2.312184715209720.0001362694527651250.000628968040787271
SAHA vs. IL70.8358208943667920.0007330882255391910.0092277312846514
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.296 0.04179

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock 0.817 1.25E-09 1.20E-07
Infected vs. Bystander 1.074 5.36E-12 8.58E-10
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.395958 0.00475227
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.011 1.471 1.484 1.533 1.228
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1H6G X-ray 2.2Å A/B=377-632.
4EHP X-ray 2.6Å B=277-382.
4IGG X-ray 3.6Å A/B=82-906.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 interacts with 10420987

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04390 Hippo signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04520 Adherens junction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04670 Leukocyte transendothelial migration - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05100 Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05200 Pathways in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05213 Endometrial cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05412 Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) - Homo sapiens (human)