Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000713
UniProt IDP32929
Primary gene name(s)CTH
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameCystathionine gamma-lyase
Protein functionCatalyzes the last step in the trans-sulfuration pathway from methionine to cysteine. Has broad substrate specificity. Converts cystathionine to cysteine, ammonia and 2-oxobutanoate. Converts two cysteine molecules to lanthionine and hydrogen sulfide. Can also accept homocysteine as substrate. Specificity depends on the levels of the endogenous substrates. Generates the endogenous signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide, H2S, and so contributes to the regulation of blood pressure. Acts as a cysteine-protein sulfhydrase by mediating sulfhydration of target proteins: sulfhydration consists of converting -SH groups into -SSH on specific cysteine residues of target proteins such as GAPDH, PTPN1 and NF-kappa-B subunit RELA, thereby regulating their function. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19019829, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19261609, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22169477}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P32929
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
'de novo' L-methionine biosynthetic process [GO:0071266];
cysteine biosynthetic process [GO:0019344];
cysteine biosynthetic process via cystathionine [GO:0019343];
cysteine metabolic process [GO:0006534];
endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response [GO:0030968];
hydrogen sulfide biosynthetic process [GO:0070814];
negative regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:2001234];
positive regulation of aortic smooth muscle cell differentiation [GO:1904831];
positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling [GO:0043123];
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity [GO:0051092];
protein homotetramerization [GO:0051289];
protein-pyridoxal-5-phosphate linkage via peptidyl-N6-pyridoxal phosphate-L-lysine [GO:0018272];
protein sulfhydration [GO:0044524];
sulfur amino acid catabolic process [GO:0000098];
transsulfuration [GO:0019346]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
carbon-sulfur lyase activity [GO:0016846];
cystathionine gamma-lyase activity [GO:0004123];
homocysteine desulfhydrase activity [GO:0047982];
L-cysteine desulfhydrase activity [GO:0080146];
L-cystine L-cysteine-lyase, deaminating [GO:0044540];
pyridoxal phosphate binding [GO:0030170]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction107873
Phylogenetic treeP32929
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.1803740700146270.7339017158604940.813754628224039
AZA vs. DISU0.3222348620034730.2821825832862980.851448190328572
AZA vs. IL7-0.1759570048568780.5069123006072740.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.8713947821423330.002684950119064330.0410060163067637
DISU vs. CD30.4902347731434760.3390908550306580.472495428797573
DISU vs. IL7-0.5074342465258720.0907739333870640.399304652993869
DISU vs. SAHA0.5504580803403770.08827424870742940.378807350470503
DMSO vs. AZA0.004280336575376520.9860791719518631
DMSO vs. CD30.1776270582748470.715682978013030.792776769394581
DMSO vs. DISU-0.3193553842997420.2686499825494720.787438822326566
DMSO vs. IL7-0.1720010212103920.4908691733113330.884322644198525
DMSO vs. SAHA0.8595441854713640.001973546358413070.0289050701337642
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.3829533430412350.7201046800365070.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.04876548603656570.8310035748548860.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.02028014698634660.966541219587190.980329439663395
SAHA vs. CD31.02851162280920.03367030921967150.071597510927113
SAHA vs. IL71.040128629852760.0003128694021357070.00479775520630076
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock 0.817 6.91E-07 1.96E-05
Infected vs. Bystander 0.922 9.59E-08 2.49E-06
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.95695 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.755 0.978 1.182 0.872 0.757
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
217127_at 1.62 No downregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00114 Pyridoxal Phosphate nutraceutical unknown cofactor
DB00151 L-Cysteine approved, nutraceutical unknown unknown
DB04217 L-2-amino-3-butynoic acid experimental unknown unknown
DB02328 2-[(3-Hydroxy-2-Methyl-5-Phosphonooxymethyl-Pyridin-4-Ylmethyl)-Imino]-5-Phosphono-Pent-3-Enoic Acid experimental unknown unknown
DB03928 Carboxymethylthio-3-(3-Chlorophenyl)-1,2,4-Oxadiazol experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2NMP X-ray 2.6Å A/B/C/D=1-402.
3COG X-ray 2.0Å A/B/C/D=1-402.
3ELP X-ray 2.4Å A/B/C/D=1-405.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00260 Glycine# serine and threonine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00270 Cysteine and methionine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00450 Selenocompound metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01230 Biosynthesis of amino acids - Homo sapiens (human)