Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000589
UniProt IDP23528
Primary gene name(s)CFL1
Synonym gene name(s)CFL
Protein nameCofilin-1
Protein functionBinds to F-actin and exhibits pH-sensitive F-actin depolymerizing activity. Regulates actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Important for normal progress through mitosis and normal cytokinesis. Plays a role in the regulation of cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization. Required for the up-regulation of atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2 from endosomal compartment to cell membrane, increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation, PubMed:11812157, PubMed:15580268, PubMed:21834987, PubMed:23633677. Required for neural tube morphogenesis and neural crest cell migration, By similarity. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P18760, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11812157, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15580268, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21834987, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23633677}.
Subcellular locationNucleus matrix {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15580268}. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15580268}. Cell projection, ruffle membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15580268};
Peripheral membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15580268};
Cytoplasmic side {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15580268}. Cell projection, lamellipodium membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15580268};
Peripheral membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15580268};
Cytoplasmic side {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15580268}. Note=Colocalizes with the actin cytoskeleton in membrane ruffles and lamellipodia. Detected at the cleavage furrow and contractile ring during cytokinesis. Almost completely in nucleus in cells exposed to heat shock or 10% dimethyl sulfoxide.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P23528
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
actin cytoskeleton organization [GO:0030036];
actin filament depolymerization [GO:0030042];
cell projection organization [GO:0030030];
cytoskeleton organization [GO:0007010];
negative regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043066];
negative regulation of cell size [GO:0045792];
positive regulation by host of viral process [GO:0044794];
protein import into nucleus [GO:0006606];
regulation of cell morphogenesis [GO:0022604];
regulation of dendritic spine morphogenesis [GO:0061001];
response to virus [GO:0009615];
Rho protein signal transduction [GO:0007266]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
actin cytoskeleton [GO:0015629];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
focal adhesion [GO:0005925];
lamellipodium membrane [GO:0031258];
membrane [GO:0016020];
nuclear matrix [GO:0016363];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
ruffle membrane [GO:0032587];
vesicle [GO:0031982]
Protein-protein interaction107499
Phylogenetic treeP23528
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.155305488846270.6366014210163930.735350752418691
AZA vs. DISU-0.4379778527613420.1194184861238150.675972309361768
AZA vs. IL70.2891998136645690.1315211089076890.897328354403451
AZA vs. SAHA-0.120492053636670.6203545015829230.877637142830688
DISU vs. CD3-0.2939541480884050.4246487457310460.556573792987547
DISU vs. IL70.7174038924887110.005766133143911060.0822369509408318
DISU vs. SAHA0.3202013706989550.2899809282844350.672015433483234
DMSO vs. AZA-0.009398641767771510.9550420496150931
DMSO vs. CD30.1356512070213470.6718080472768040.757203967696024
DMSO vs. DISU0.4270602883043020.1050010094008980.578339386215277
DMSO vs. IL70.3057854804182940.0879481017505810.553801387267045
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.116378722658970.6208073098621530.875727973378405
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1288549602936440.8359943941014680.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.1190241085649230.4708409349780680.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.4500330152957560.1619179552343810.275337244951243
SAHA vs. CD30.01242419094333690.9720864162063860.981164306493183
SAHA vs. IL7-0.4109294159196030.09162912467416520.273120986150265
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.00338348 0.988122
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.034 0.99 1.091 1.112 1.032
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
0.66 0.0008 -0.03 0.4093 -0.17 0.242 Cell growth and proliferation at 4 hpi
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB04147 Lauryl Dimethylamine-N-Oxide experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1Q8G NMR - A=1-166.
1Q8X NMR - A=1-166.
3J0S EM 9.0Å M/N/O/P/Q/R/S/T/U/V/W/X=1-166.
4BEX X-ray 2.8Å 1=1-166.
5HVK X-ray 3.5Å B/D=2-166.
5L6W X-ray 2.5Å C=1-166.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Pr55(Gag) incorporates 8892894
Nef induces phosphorylation of 19683683
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 interacts with 17572668
Tat downregulates 16526095
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 activates 18775311
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 induces phosphorylation of 23294842

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04360 Axon guidance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04666 Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04810 Regulation of actin cytoskeleton - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05133 Pertussis - Homo sapiens (human)