Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000509
UniProt IDQ9UK39
Primary gene name(s)NOCT
Synonym gene name(s)CCR4, CCRN4L, NOC
Protein nameNocturnin
Protein functionCircadian deadenylase which plays an important role in post-transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes under circadian control. Degrades poly(A tails of specific target mRNAs leading to their degradation and suppression of translation. Exerts a rhythmic post-transcriptional control of genes necessary for metabolic functions including nutrient absorption, glucose/insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, adipogenesis, inflammation and osteogenesis. Plays an important role in favoring adipogenesis over osteoblastogenesis and acts as a key regulator of the adipogenesis/osteogenesis balance. Promotes adipogenesis by activating PPARG transcriptional activity in a deadenylase-independent manner by facilitating its nuclear translocation. Regulates circadian expression of NOS2 in the liver and negatively regulates the circadian expression of IGF1 in the bone. Critical for proper development of early embryos, By similarity. {ECO:0000250}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000250}. Nucleus {ECO:0000250}. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region {ECO:0000250}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9UK39
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
circadian regulation of gene expression [GO:0032922];
circadian rhythm [GO:0007623];
cytoplasmic mRNA processing body assembly [GO:0033962];
deadenylation-dependent decapping of nuclear-transcribed mRNA [GO:0000290];
mRNA processing [GO:0006397];
mRNA stabilization [GO:0048255];
negative regulation of gene expression [GO:0010629];
negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation [GO:0045668];
positive regulation of fat cell differentiation [GO:0045600];
regulation of circadian rhythm [GO:0042752];
regulation of embryonic development [GO:0045995];
response to extracellular stimulus [GO:0009991];
response to lipopolysaccharide [GO:0032496];
transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0006366]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
Protein-protein interaction117347
Phylogenetic treeQ9UK39
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.868716410371548.95618047502822e-088.71449658616045e-07
AZA vs. DISU-0.1270674389136370.6567097869597990.960426582104957
AZA vs. IL70.2483016130015970.2829262683519430.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.2433053978622110.3890508300618710.751637508037199
DISU vs. CD3-2.009468146250822.01066189808863e-072.27201779998411e-06
DISU vs. IL70.3685330936618050.1897062386081980.563622693539336
DISU vs. SAHA-0.115269673091430.7197715425541540.917103213595783
DMSO vs. AZA0.01908136078708210.9295558107789431
DMSO vs. CD3-1.85918352687464.6856199364953e-084.36002868087101e-07
DMSO vs. DISU0.1468346389405690.5937151236309620.936617104730771
DMSO vs. IL70.237059072029660.2751669886030520.769860685669313
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.2707790802561390.3187810978284350.671937052499629
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.05363100598288350.9322101044011280.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.2461173932002040.2397596771323670.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.613429648659051.94843452550053e-061.77884637206962e-05
SAHA vs. CD3-2.137879325039461.79736420191645e-082.26473900692984e-07
SAHA vs. IL7-0.4970480984201690.07289100547920170.235987761295852
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.63431 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.013 0.906 0.717 0.725 0.787
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found