Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000477
UniProt IDQ16773
Primary gene name(s)KYAT1
Synonym gene name(s)CCBL1
Protein nameKynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 1
Protein functionCatalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid, KA. Metabolizes the cysteine conjugates of certain halogenated alkenes and alkanes to form reactive metabolites. Catalyzes the beta-elimination of S-conjugates and Se-conjugates of L-(selenocysteine, resulting in the cleavage of the C-S or C-Se bond. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19338303}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q16773
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cellular amino acid biosynthetic process [GO:0008652];
cellular modified amino acid metabolic process [GO:0006575];
kynurenine metabolic process [GO:0070189];
L-kynurenine catabolic process [GO:0097053];
L-phenylalanine catabolic process [GO:0006559];
tryptophan catabolic process [GO:0006569]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
cysteine-S-conjugate beta-lyase activity [GO:0047804];
glutamine-phenylpyruvate transaminase activity [GO:0047316];
kynurenine-oxoglutarate transaminase activity [GO:0016212];
L-glutamine:pyruvate aminotransferase activity [GO:0047945];
L-phenylalanine:pyruvate aminotransferase activity [GO:0047312];
protein homodimerization activity [GO:0042803];
pyridoxal phosphate binding [GO:0030170];
transaminase activity [GO:0008483]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654]
Protein-protein interaction107326
Phylogenetic treeQ16773
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-1.263229399510260.0002159334158423620.00094774270342926
AZA vs. DISU-0.2639330461692180.3090819571148260.866242136589333
AZA vs. IL7-0.06694884297169230.7386870886343360.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.2396594123700330.3380128036521940.710034141897041
DISU vs. CD30.9872813565051340.008240306318639920.0246795534665396
DISU vs. IL70.1880610484013830.4660499084316670.805202276094737
DISU vs. SAHA0.5053694808123490.08873935855290840.379832681837797
DMSO vs. AZA0.009353981224602340.9579208656804891
DMSO vs. CD31.257169045161880.0001659001899214640.000703627916995173
DMSO vs. DISU0.2704724026764650.2798586820342640.79608496061916
DMSO vs. IL7-0.06864332649874110.715041392573220.942248514717242
DMSO vs. SAHA0.2248736640672860.3516049913224420.702001661449036
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.2845756356767720.6549646755995670.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.2521153980972860.1445736453156970.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.204686673791720.0003089238391145170.00154852312170705
SAHA vs. CD31.479071872333056.14885296763568e-050.000311892340027835
SAHA vs. IL70.3028061312131990.2248629841256730.465227042550787
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.0959884 0.670211
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.002 0.978 1.04 1.109 0.866
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00114 Pyridoxal Phosphate nutraceutical unknown cofactor
DB02142 Pyridoxamine-5&,39;-Phosphate experimental unknown unknown
DB02556 D-Phenylalanine experimental unknown unknown
DB04083 N&,39;-Pyridoxyl-Lysine-5&,39;-Monophosphate experimental unknown unknown
DB07950 1H-INDOL-3-YLACETIC ACID experimental unknown unknown
DB00130 L-Glutamine approved, investigational, nutraceutical unknown substrate

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1W7L X-ray 2.0Å A=1-422.
1W7M X-ray 2.7Å A=1-422.
1W7N X-ray 2.9Å A=1-422.
3FVS X-ray 1.5Å A/B=1-422.
3FVU X-ray 1.5Å A/B=1-422.
3FVX X-ray 1.5Å A/B=1-422.
4WLH X-ray 1.2Å A/B=1-422.
4WLJ X-ray 1.5Å A/B=1-422.
4WP0 X-ray 3.0Å A/B/C/D=1-422.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00380 Tryptophan metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00450 Selenocompound metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05204 Chemical carcinogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)