Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000465
UniProt IDP55211
Primary gene name(s)CASP9
Synonym gene name(s)MCH6
Protein nameCaspase-9
Protein functionInvolved in the activation cascade of caspases responsible for apoptosis execution. Binding of caspase-9 to Apaf-1 leads to activation of the protease which then cleaves and activates caspase-3. Promotes DNA damage-induced apoptosis in a ABL1/c-Abl-dependent manner. Proteolytically cleaves poly(ADP-ribose polymerase, PARP.; FUNCTION: Isoform 2 lacks activity is an dominant-negative inhibitor of caspase-9.
Subcellular locationunknown
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P55211
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process by cytochrome c [GO:0008635];
aging [GO:0007568];
apoptotic process [GO:0006915];
cellular response to dexamethasone stimulus [GO:0071549];
cellular response to DNA damage stimulus [GO:0006974];
cellular response to UV [GO:0034644];
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand [GO:0097192];
glial cell apoptotic process [GO:0034349];
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage [GO:0008630];
platelet formation [GO:0030220];
positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process [GO:0043525];
regulation of response to DNA damage stimulus [GO:2001020];
response to antibiotic [GO:0046677];
response to cobalt ion [GO:0032025];
response to estradiol [GO:0032355];
response to lipopolysaccharide [GO:0032496];
signal transduction in response to DNA damage [GO:0042770]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
cysteine-type endopeptidase activity [GO:0004197];
cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process [GO:0097153];
enzyme activator activity [GO:0008047];
peptidase activity [GO:0008233];
protein kinase binding [GO:0019901];
SH3 domain binding [GO:0017124]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
apoptosome [GO:0043293];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction107292
Phylogenetic treeP55211
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.1717710879190470.606727541494440.710446780707976
AZA vs. DISU0.0886103837947110.7295318453972160.974560663114398
AZA vs. IL70.4288424628690770.0293491584168050.54046606875835
AZA vs. SAHA0.1658963575366150.6242902238790560.880034241939598
DISU vs. CD30.2474463404181770.5004178298590510.625895981355405
DISU vs. IL70.331121833500860.1934926798300540.567932661300248
DISU vs. SAHA0.07989839972165270.80925941329920.950589679896226
DMSO vs. AZA-0.04247376480549740.806676689457741
DMSO vs. CD30.116819336098280.7197958920774570.795577778000505
DMSO vs. DISU-0.1330688666448130.5903781639714410.935271769351332
DMSO vs. IL70.4785886047229520.009425004436437350.202562384712531
DMSO vs. SAHA0.2032747538976180.5348950079380130.830340624903925
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.2350541285535510.7080642950342690.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.04677066853418330.7830922839014790.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.6073227929564030.06295232349155120.132119238650536
SAHA vs. CD30.3136435771791170.4036925938029920.519792155554604
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2650383259657910.4140761340833310.659054634584166
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.399859 0.00154878
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.023 0.939 0.73 1.009 1.072
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1JXQ X-ray 2.8Å A/B/C/D=140-416.
1NW9 X-ray 2.4Å B=140-416.
2AR9 X-ray 2.8Å A/B/C/D=139-416.
3D9T X-ray 1.5Å C/D=316-321.
3V3K X-ray 3.4Å A/C/E/G/I/K/M/O=141-416.
3YGS X-ray 2.5Å P=1-95.
4RHW X-ray 2.1Å E/F=1-100.
5JUY EM 4.1Å O/P/Q/R=1-95.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat activates 23732112
Nef inhibits 24556695
Tat upregulates 20340172
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 upregulates 22219640
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 activates 11462036
Vpr activates 10438581
Nef upregulates 15767427
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 activates 17653867
Tat interacts with 23364796
retropepsin activates 12404116

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa01524 Platinum drug resistance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04115 p53 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04151 PI3K-Akt signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04210 Apoptosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04215 Apoptosis - multiple species - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04370 VEGF signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04919 Thyroid hormone signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05010 Alzheimer's disease - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05012 Parkinson's disease - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05014 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05016 Huntington's disease - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05134 Legionellosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05145 Toxoplasmosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05152 Tuberculosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05161 Hepatitis B - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05164 Influenza A - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05200 Pathways in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05210 Colorectal cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05212 Pancreatic cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05213 Endometrial cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05215 Prostate cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05222 Small cell lung cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05223 Non-small cell lung cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05416 Viral myocarditis - Homo sapiens (human)