Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000440
UniProt IDP62158
Primary gene name(s)CALM1; CALM2; CALM3
Synonym gene name(s)CALM, CAM, CAM1;, CAM2, CAMB;, CALML2, CAM3, CAMC, CAMIII
Protein nameCalmodulin
Protein functionCalmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels, aquaporins and other proteins by Ca(2+. Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+ complex are a number of protein kinases and phosphatases. Together with CCP110 and centrin, is involved in a genetic pathway that regulates the centrosome cycle and progression through cytokinesis. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16760425, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23893133}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16760425}. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle pole {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16760425}. Note=Distributed throughout the cell during interphase, but during mitosis becomes dramatically localized to the spindle poles and the spindle microtubules.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P62158
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
detection of calcium ion [GO:0005513];
Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway [GO:0038095];
glycogen catabolic process [GO:0005980];
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway [GO:0007186];
inositol phosphate metabolic process [GO:0043647];
MAPK cascade [GO:0000165];
muscle contraction [GO:0006936];
negative regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation [GO:0010801];
negative regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity [GO:0060315];
platelet degranulation [GO:0002576];
positive regulation of cyclic nucleotide metabolic process [GO:0030801];
positive regulation of cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity [GO:0051343];
positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation [GO:0010800];
positive regulation of phosphoprotein phosphatase activity [GO:0032516];
positive regulation of protein autophosphorylation [GO:0031954];
positive regulation of protein dephosphorylation [GO:0035307];
positive regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity [GO:0071902];
positive regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity [GO:0060316];
regulation of cardiac muscle contraction [GO:0055117];
regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion [GO:0010881];
regulation of cell communication by electrical coupling involved in cardiac conduction [GO:1901844];
regulation of cytokinesis [GO:0032465];
regulation of heart rate [GO:0002027];
regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity [GO:0050999];
regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol by sarcoplasmic reticulum [GO:0010880];
regulation of rhodopsin mediated signaling pathway [GO:0022400];
response to calcium ion [GO:0051592];
substantia nigra development [GO:0021762];
Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway [GO:0007223]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
calcium ion binding [GO:0005509];
inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase activity [GO:0008440];
ion channel binding [GO:0044325];
ligand-gated ion channel activity [GO:0015276];
nitric-oxide synthase regulator activity [GO:0030235];
N-terminal myristoylation domain binding [GO:0031997];
phospholipase binding [GO:0043274];
protein domain specific binding [GO:0019904];
protein kinase binding [GO:0019901];
protein phosphatase activator activity [GO:0072542];
protein serine/threonine kinase activator activity [GO:0043539];
Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity [GO:0005088];
thioesterase binding [GO:0031996];
titin binding [GO:0031432]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
centrosome [GO:0005813];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
extracellular region [GO:0005576];
growth cone [GO:0030426];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
sarcomere [GO:0030017];
spindle microtubule [GO:0005876];
spindle pole [GO:0000922];
vesicle [GO:0031982];
voltage-gated potassium channel complex [GO:0008076]
Protein-protein interaction107252;107256;107259
Phylogenetic treeP62158
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.026529470571050.001871765080628360.00625526458874294
AZA vs. DISU-0.1975557180333610.4339221050008390.915650781529304
AZA vs. IL70.1097048718851640.5671628939051880.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.2116799600041770.3845862851725770.747924408597605
DISU vs. CD3-1.236159131486930.0007587191274698310.00325375024963876
DISU vs. IL70.2980390388142610.2364072022372190.621334047678717
DISU vs. SAHA-0.0134587087795530.9630872483677540.992637214624418
DMSO vs. AZA-0.09838882674504060.555583127734221
DMSO vs. CD3-1.134239341040660.0004482345903992210.00169707316018202
DMSO vs. DISU0.09773476339752130.6882810910993730.957954410639349
DMSO vs. IL70.2150956862403830.2302497504691210.738256189278184
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1211278896779620.6066570337022850.868439224442168
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.1735322483822060.780015381989670.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.02907015946333750.859658126490670.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.9085363350023290.00493413252999830.0165842439711488
SAHA vs. CD3-1.263085430967780.0004182879597178780.00167872158533913
SAHA vs. IL7-0.3248964542473190.181605860504030.410116365728503
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.2892 0.04156

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.072382 0.763166
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.01 1.06 1.009 1.081 1.192
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category