Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000348
UniProt IDQ9H040
Primary gene name(s)SPRTN
Synonym gene name(s)C1orf124, DVC1
Protein nameSprT-like domain-containing protein Spartan
Protein functionRegulator of UV-induced DNA damage response: acts as a 'reader' of ubiquitinated PCNA that enhances RAD18-mediated PCNA ubiquitination and translesion DNA synthesis, TLS. Recruited to sites of UV damage and interacts with ubiquitinated PCNA and RAD18, the E3 ubiquitin ligase that monoubiquitinates PCNA. Facilitates chromatin association of RAD18 and is required for efficient PCNA monoubiquitination, promoting a feed-forward loop to enhance PCNA ubiquitination and translesion DNA synthesis. Acts as a regulator of TLS by recruiting VCP/p97 to sites of DNA damage, possibly leading to extraction of DNA polymerase eta, POLH by VCP/p97 to prevent excessive translesion DNA synthesis and limit the incidence of mutations induced by DNA damage. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22681887, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22894931, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22902628, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22987070, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23042605, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23042607}.
Subcellular locationNucleus. Chromosome. Note=Localizes to sites of UV damage via the PIP-box. Recruited to stalled relication forks at sites of replication stress.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9H040
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cellular response to DNA damage stimulus [GO:0006974];
error-free translesion synthesis [GO:0070987];
positive regulation of protein ubiquitination [GO:0031398];
response to UV [GO:0009411];
translesion synthesis [GO:0019985]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
DNA binding [GO:0003677];
K63-linked polyubiquitin binding [GO:0070530];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
ubiquitin binding [GO:0043130]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
chromosome [GO:0005694];
nuclear speck [GO:0016607];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction123817
Phylogenetic treeQ9H040
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.09941077611970120.7627534400186960.83572403663578
AZA vs. DISU0.3018293197107830.2380651828659550.822134616466808
AZA vs. IL70.02770976308929380.8879355756453010.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.08661012845425770.7264384055213560.923823921201045
DISU vs. CD30.1900112425593860.6014268164568680.711833215395008
DISU vs. IL7-0.2827902593405030.2664326688144260.652872640178391
DISU vs. SAHA-0.2144892567111210.4659242472820130.801588700571502
DMSO vs. AZA-0.09232946791682040.5935102404002021
DMSO vs. CD3-0.2027430112618630.5285211379266530.63494186147249
DMSO vs. DISU-0.3959356305209540.1087815934401930.582581707130512
DMSO vs. IL70.1271856731586830.4898985381329570.884322644198525
DMSO vs. SAHA0.1712401587213260.4745594568549420.799414163736876
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.02408872297094910.9692272739250020.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.02803227668284870.8689872985911650.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.06298673017786190.8454335074802330.900175051366147
SAHA vs. CD3-0.03841637740090050.9138913502412780.940798049602846
SAHA vs. IL70.05438703053480330.8258661306669090.925054433047952
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.01409 0.951054
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
5IY4 X-ray 2.9Å B/D/F=321-336.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found