Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000282
UniProt IDQ96RR1
Primary gene name(s)PEO1
Synonym gene name(s)C10orf2
Protein nameTwinkle protein, mitochondrial
Protein functionInvolved in mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA metabolism. Could function as an adenine nucleotide-dependent DNA helicase. Function inferred to be critical for lifetime maintenance of mtDNA integrity. In vitro, forms in combination with POLG, a processive replication machinery, which can use double-stranded DNA, dsDNA as template to synthesize single-stranded DNA, ssDNA molecules. May be a key regulator of mtDNA copy number in mammals. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15167897}.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion matrix, mitochondrion nucleoid {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11431692}. Note=Colocalizes with mtDNA in mitochondrial nucleoids, a nucleoproteins complex consisting of a number of copies of proteins associated with mtDNA, probably involved in mtDNA maintenance and expression.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q96RR1
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cellular response to glucose stimulus [GO:0071333];
DNA unwinding involved in DNA replication [GO:0006268];
mitochondrial DNA replication [GO:0006264];
mitochondrion organization [GO:0007005];
protein hexamerization [GO:0034214];
protein homooligomerization [GO:0051260];
transcription from mitochondrial promoter [GO:0006390]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
Protein-protein interaction121166
Phylogenetic treeQ96RR1
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.960870656047578.33893021301435e-099.97494890242479e-08
AZA vs. DISU-0.2401999946854730.3582692335532060.892652307951615
AZA vs. IL70.4145006562460230.03317460787172060.565359105501236
AZA vs. SAHA-0.3571360755775730.1489939090622950.491236698426298
DISU vs. CD3-2.213605501423229.27226162517059e-091.44241560100951e-07
DISU vs. IL70.6450803003845020.01241541468233210.133687411668683
DISU vs. SAHA-0.1149401279343990.6980783204088710.910578191789234
DMSO vs. AZA0.1140527872079670.5033368801320561
DMSO vs. CD3-1.858726788747892.10145114643012e-082.09796961702914e-07
DMSO vs. DISU0.3520398028931260.1592500644476440.664449187749583
DMSO vs. IL70.3078562047463840.09046936831323420.558382940759344
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.4771115871276560.04573659207573930.239671828641678
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1438607557442840.8240394198061460.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.1278934312349280.4481224407938260.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.539884523802933.0160656605549e-062.62629449460104e-05
SAHA vs. CD3-2.3417582808064.46405357124036e-108.07602488818634e-09
SAHA vs. IL7-0.774189666592990.001755108553377020.0179244622856403
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
-0.4543 0.01625

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change -1.836123019
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.103534 0.587369
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.84 0.672 0.705 0.548 0.746
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found