Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000219
UniProt IDO75531
Primary gene name(s)BANF1
Synonym gene name(s)BAF, BCRG1
Protein nameBarrier-to-autointegration factor
Protein functionPlays fundamental roles in nuclear assembly, chromatin organization, gene expression and gonad development. May potently compress chromatin structure and be involved in membrane recruitment and chromatin decondensation during nuclear assembly. Contains 2 non-specific dsDNA-binding sites which may promote DNA cross-bridging. Exploited by retroviruses for inhibiting self-destructing autointegration of retroviral DNA, thereby promoting integration of viral DNA into the host chromosome. EMD and BAF are cooperative cofactors of HIV-1 infection. Association of EMD with the viral DNA requires the presence of BAF and viral integrase. The association of viral DNA with chromatin requires the presence of BAF and EMD. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11005805, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12163470, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16680152}.
Subcellular locationNucleus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16495336}. Cytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16495336}. Chromosome {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16495336}. Note=Significantly enriched at the nuclear inner membrane, diffusely throughout the nucleus during interphase and concentrated at the chromosomes during the M-phase. May be included in HIV-1 virions via its interaction with viral GAG polyprotein. The phosphorylated form, by VRK1 shows a cytoplasmic localization.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: O75531
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
DNA integration [GO:0015074];
establishment of integrated proviral latency [GO:0075713];
mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly [GO:0007077];
mitotic nuclear envelope reassembly [GO:0007084];
nuclear transport [GO:0051169];
response to virus [GO:0009615]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
DNA binding [GO:0003677]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
condensed chromosome [GO:0000793];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction114342
Phylogenetic treeO75531
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.204314686667760.0002854229861416480.00121385306070173
AZA vs. DISU-0.317207250016140.2118819837376620.801649999689472
AZA vs. IL70.3455409672315180.07330770614521720.75838507531013
AZA vs. SAHA-0.8597813102243090.00056004990497760.0138433516792351
DISU vs. CD3-1.533827615925093.68583269432232e-050.000235924594625115
DISU vs. IL70.6530264986367730.01010432382839090.117950795610414
DISU vs. SAHA-0.5404510407193580.07114108286908450.336643554539565
DMSO vs. AZA-0.02016221740267520.904675131838611
DMSO vs. CD3-1.234952470752930.0001396755612209640.00060413790691755
DMSO vs. DISU0.2953267082906730.2285426439385250.741620223627141
DMSO vs. IL70.3729194410716690.03881268993303750.40435473444405
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.8454712154198160.0004338454897316880.00984711652973836
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.02688410541975970.9656017750853340.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.1612359390632980.3337463980460380.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.8526188933764470.00833853378961780.025671307150921
SAHA vs. CD3-2.087779206353711.5733278790897e-082.00084819728961e-07
SAHA vs. IL7-1.207488777761251.30428642253211e-065.70950276219364e-05
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.0832868 0.664528
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.067 0.957 1.004 1.001 0.95
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1CI4 X-ray 1.9Å A/B=1-89.
1QCK NMR - A/B=1-89.
2BZF X-ray 2.8Å A=1-89.
2EZX NMR - A/B=1-89.
2EZY NMR - A/B=1-89.
2EZZ NMR - A/B=1-89.
2ODG NMR - A/B=1-89.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found