Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000205
UniProt IDQ96GD4
Primary gene name(s)AURKB
Synonym gene name(s)AIK2, AIM1, AIRK2, ARK2, STK1, STK12, STK5
Protein nameAurora kinase B
Protein functionSerine/threonine-protein kinase component of the chromosomal passenger complex, CPC, a complex that acts as a key regulator of mitosis. The CPC complex has essential functions at the centromere in ensuring correct chromosome alignment and segregation and is required for chromatin-induced microtubule stabilization and spindle assembly. Involved in the bipolar attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochores and is a key regulator for the onset of cytokinesis during mitosis. Required for central/midzone spindle assembly and cleavage furrow formation. Key component of the cytokinesis checkpoint, a process required to delay abscission to prevent both premature resolution of intercellular chromosome bridges and accumulation of DNA damage: phosphorylates CHMP4C, leading to retain abscission-competent VPS4, VPS4A and/or VPS4B at the midbody ring until abscission checkpoint signaling is terminated at late cytokinesis, PubMed:22422861, PubMed:24814515. AURKB phosphorylates the CPC complex subunits BIRC5/survivin, CDCA8/borealin and INCENP. Phosphorylation of INCENP leads to increased AURKB activity. Other known AURKB substrates involved in centromeric functions and mitosis are CENPA, DES/desmin, GPAF, KIF2C, NSUN2, RACGAP1, SEPT1, VIM/vimentin, GSG2/Haspin, and histone H3. A positive feedback loop involving GSG2 and AURKB contributes to localization of CPC to centromeres. Phosphorylation of VIM controls vimentin filament segregation in cytokinetic process, whereas histone H3 is phosphorylated at 'Ser-10' and 'Ser-28' during mitosis, H3S10ph and H3S28ph, respectively. A positive feedback between GSG2 and AURKB contributes to CPC localization. AURKB is also required for kinetochore localization of BUB1 and SGO1. Phosphorylation of p53/TP53 negatively regulates its transcriptional activity. Key regulator of active promoters in resting B- and T-lymphocytes: acts by mediating phosphorylation of H3S28ph at active promoters in resting B-cells, inhibiting RNF2/RING1B-mediated ubiquitination of histone H2A and enhancing binding and activity of the USP16 deubiquitinase at transcribed genes. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11516652, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11756469, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11784863, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11856369, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12458200, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12686604, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12689593, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12925766, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14602875, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14610074, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14722118, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15020684, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15249581, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16103226, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17617734, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20959462, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21658950, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22422861, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24814515}.
Subcellular locationNucleus. Chromosome. Chromosome, centromere. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle. Midbody. Note=Localizes on chromosome arms and inner centromeres from prophase through metaphase and then transferring to the spindle midzone and midbody from anaphase through cytokinesis. Colocalized with gamma tubulin in the midbody. Proper localization of the active, Thr-232-phosphorylated form during metaphase may be dependent upon interaction with SPDYC. Colocalized with SIRT2 during cytokinesis with the midbody. Localization, and probably targeting of the CPC to the inner centromere occurs predominantly in regions with overlapping mitosis-specific histone phosphorylations H3pT3 and H2ApT12. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:20929775}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q96GD4
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
abscission [GO:0009838];
aging [GO:0007568];
anaphase-promoting complex-dependent catabolic process [GO:0031145];
attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochore [GO:0008608];
cell proliferation [GO:0008283];
cellular response to UV [GO:0034644];
cleavage furrow formation [GO:0036089];
histone H3-S28 phosphorylation [GO:0043988];
histone modification [GO:0016570];
mitotic spindle midzone assembly [GO:0051256];
negative regulation of B cell apoptotic process [GO:0002903];
negative regulation of cytokinesis [GO:0032466];
negative regulation of protein binding [GO:0032091];
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0000122];
positive regulation of cytokinesis [GO:0032467];
positive regulation of telomerase activity [GO:0051973];
positive regulation of telomere capping [GO:1904355];
positive regulation of telomere maintenance via telomerase [GO:0032212];
protein autophosphorylation [GO:0046777];
protein localization to kinetochore [GO:0034501];
protein phosphorylation [GO:0006468];
protein sumoylation [GO:0016925];
protein ubiquitination involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process [GO:0042787];
regulation of chromosome segregation [GO:0051983];
regulation of signal transduction by p53 class mediator [GO:1901796];
sister chromatid cohesion [GO:0007062];
spindle checkpoint [GO:0031577];
spindle organization [GO:0007051]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
histone serine kinase activity [GO:0035174];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
protein serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activity [GO:0004712];
protein serine/threonine kinase activity [GO:0004674]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
chromocenter [GO:0010369];
chromosome passenger complex [GO:0032133];
condensed chromosome, centromeric region [GO:0000779];
condensed nuclear chromosome, centromeric region [GO:0000780];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
intercellular bridge [GO:0045171];
midbody [GO:0030496];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
spindle [GO:0005819];
spindle microtubule [GO:0005876];
spindle midzone [GO:0051233];
spindle pole centrosome [GO:0031616]
Protein-protein interaction114646
Phylogenetic treeQ96GD4
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.2204740395417590.8692353621156560.913908605825912
AZA vs. DISU-0.6726947771822180.1252811864154230.687973149399593
AZA vs. IL70.009857888686821820.9820340142517310.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.6197575132315430.1818929782042240.544775432833395
DISU vs. CD3-0.46255151861030.7315231786427180.812240748000909
DISU vs. IL70.6727680884999460.09349124329906850.406256356932317
DISU vs. SAHA0.05374444179213810.8995205266844790.975300277529625
DMSO vs. AZA-0.05964034587551340.9101488584423271
DMSO vs. CD30.1471258791688110.9118687503275510.939623989308109
DMSO vs. DISU0.6100031418660620.2191562205210220.731297416383213
DMSO vs. IL70.0778467456056590.8753525973727350.972762986031258
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.5671350834396640.2743718092224840.623025085397577
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1664637213293930.9421010602529690.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.3149918940968270.5247622189401650.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.2391488701505020.859037058616880.910119180750139
SAHA vs. CD3-0.4253478056764890.7563798253417350.825510136725083
SAHA vs. IL7-0.6329867986258750.1406844281277930.353622989761273
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change -1.004846824
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
2.5 0.000471081 1.7 0.013051652 1.9 0.163007427
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.410614 0.0017721
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.042 2.75E-04

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.082 1.366 1.85 1.61 1.073
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
209464_at 2.4 No upregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB04703 HESPERIDIN experimental unknown unknown
DB05169 AT9283 investigational unknown unknown
DB07340 N~6~-cyclohexyl-N~2~-(4-morpholin-4-ylphenyl)-9H-purine-2,6-diamine experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
4AF3 X-ray 2.7Å A=55-344.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpr downregulates 21875947

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found