Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000190
UniProt IDP06576
Primary gene name(s)ATP5B
Synonym gene name(s)ATPMB, ATPSB
Protein nameATP synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial
Protein functionMitochondrial membrane ATP synthase, F(1F(0 ATP synthase or Complex V produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1 - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core, and F(0 - containing the membrane proton channel, linked together by a central stalk and a peripheral stalk. During catalysis, ATP synthesis in the catalytic domain of F(1 is coupled via a rotary mechanism of the central stalk subunits to proton translocation. Subunits alpha and beta form the catalytic core in F(1. Rotation of the central stalk against the surrounding alpha(3beta(3 subunits leads to hydrolysis of ATP in three separate catalytic sites on the beta subunits.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion. Mitochondrion inner membrane. Note=Peripheral membrane protein.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P06576
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
angiogenesis [GO:0001525];
ATP biosynthetic process [GO:0006754];
generation of precursor metabolites and energy [GO:0006091];
lipid metabolic process [GO:0006629];
mitochondrial ATP synthesis coupled proton transport [GO:0042776];
mitochondrion organization [GO:0007005];
negative regulation of cell adhesion involved in substrate-bound cell migration [GO:0006933];
osteoblast differentiation [GO:0001649];
proton transport [GO:0015992];
regulation of intracellular pH [GO:0051453]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
MHC class I protein binding [GO:0042288];
proton-transporting ATPase activity, rotational mechanism [GO:0046961];
proton-transporting ATP synthase activity, rotational mechanism [GO:0046933];
transmembrane transporter activity [GO:0022857];
transporter activity [GO:0005215]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cell surface [GO:0009986];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
membrane [GO:0016020];
mitochondrial matrix [GO:0005759];
mitochondrial membrane [GO:0031966];
mitochondrial nucleoid [GO:0042645];
mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase, catalytic core [GO:0005754];
mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase complex [GO:0005753];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
myelin sheath [GO:0043209];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction106994
Phylogenetic treeP06576
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      Yes - Two siRNA pools inhibit HIV replication and inhibition of Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV LTR is not observed
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.148403579341210.0005284240492113850.00208984709255156
AZA vs. DISU0.014595748963570.9538633908351180.996649735504266
AZA vs. IL70.3157470630327440.09959964699788790.836700555110385
AZA vs. SAHA-0.2545568135425830.2957576794209460.668369064652122
DISU vs. CD3-1.14639556418540.001763984921331120.00673513391695676
DISU vs. IL70.291813591854590.2458398769341830.631890220764331
DISU vs. SAHA-0.2671426206418720.3586651019888460.734744671289963
DMSO vs. AZA0.02841708028048720.864665583814371
DMSO vs. CD3-1.133497791697760.0004564282010524060.00172376306063036
DMSO vs. DISU0.0114303636752470.9625331176545120.994294013509907
DMSO vs. IL70.2948889502660110.09995295534469450.575717679889655
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.2881518968036120.2208322898791710.565533294948001
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.06069412244634570.922237123611290.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.002259538676547780.9890326307610640.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.8259959976471640.0104921919694290.0310765984584796
SAHA vs. CD3-1.426776557194067.50444741216549e-050.000372626103793522
SAHA vs. IL7-0.5728699672426130.01881139674127920.0966579732136946
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.0139205 0.948066
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.009 0.961 1.061 1.043 0.889
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB07384 1-ACETYL-2-CARBOXYPIPERIDINE experimental unknown unknown
DB07394 AUROVERTIN B experimental unknown unknown
DB08399 PICEATANNOL experimental unknown unknown
DB04216 Quercetin experimental unknown unknown
DB08629 N1-(2-AMINO-4-METHYLPENTYL)OCTAHYDRO-PYRROLO[1,2-A] PYRIMIDINE experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpu interacts with 22190034
Vpr downregulates 23874603
Tat upregulates 23364796
HIV-1 virus replication enhanced by expression of human gene 18976975

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00190 Oxidative phosphorylation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05010 Alzheimer's disease - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05012 Parkinson's disease - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05016 Huntington's disease - Homo sapiens (human)