Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000184
UniProt IDP54259
Primary gene name(s)ATN1
Synonym gene name(s)D12S755E, DRPLA
Protein nameAtrophin-1
Protein functionTranscriptional corepressor. Recruits NR2E1 to repress transcription. Promotes vascular smooth cell, VSMC migration and orientation, By similarity. Corepressor of MTG8 transcriptional repression. Has some intrinsic repression activity which is independent of the number of poly-Asn, polyQ repeats. {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10085113, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10973986}.
Subcellular locationNucleus. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Cell junction {ECO:0000250}. Note=Shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm. Colocalizes with FAT1 in the perinuclear area, at cell-cell junctions and leading edges of cells, By similarity. Colocalizes with MTG8 in discrete nuclear dots. Proteolytic fragment F1 appears to remain in nucleus. Fragment F2 is exported into the cytoplasm. Fragment F2 from mutant sequences with longer poly-Asn, polyQ tracts are additionally located to the cytoplasmic membrane and to certain organelles. {ECO:0000250}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P54259
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
central nervous system development [GO:0007417];
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0000122];
neuron apoptotic process [GO:0051402];
transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006351]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
protein domain specific binding [GO:0019904];
transcription corepressor activity [GO:0003714]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cell junction [GO:0030054];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
nuclear matrix [GO:0016363];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
perinuclear region of cytoplasm [GO:0048471]
Protein-protein interaction108156
Phylogenetic treeP54259
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.034061424442680.001792182190492380.00603075909245391
AZA vs. DISU0.6104478698787270.01711707982248280.31581745562314
AZA vs. IL70.273979206291140.1548403742337260.922020841096286
AZA vs. SAHA-0.01148477688581950.9624612308517660.990779256780515
DISU vs. CD3-0.4374467516592480.2378651516100380.362766015314621
DISU vs. IL7-0.3452251675995670.1723664440135630.537240320818655
DISU vs. SAHA-0.6191525318672960.03508347551538060.227318598234007
DMSO vs. AZA0.1210168119052450.4704465276545111
DMSO vs. CD3-0.9277594468538030.004065695146477920.0115174308728262
DMSO vs. DISU-0.4919967108017810.04585436653678740.426798340099644
DMSO vs. IL70.1608481605927130.3713616961112770.830194188375728
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1371097736736280.5608511647233240.844330027324465
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.4430899826104770.4769095695476610.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.2132986635375650.1968037956507280.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.7539706027712740.02027643752979270.052878292936103
SAHA vs. CD3-1.069122534804770.002852039373411720.00878941377450196
SAHA vs. IL7-0.28825792133680.2366962025066590.477963826536802
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.868565 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.185 1.216 1.22 1.239 1.375
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found