Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000177
UniProt IDQ9Y2D1
Primary gene name(s)ATF5
Synonym gene name(s)ATFX
Protein nameCyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-5
Protein functionTranscription factor that either stimulates or represses gene transcription through binding of different DNA regulatory elements such as cAMP response element, CRE, consensus: 5'-GTGACGT[AC][AG]-3', ATF5-specific response element, ARE, consensus: 5'-C[CT]TCT[CT]CCTT[AT]-3' but also the amino acid response element, AARE, present in many viral and cellular promoters. Critically involved, often in a cell type-dependent manner, in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation, PubMed:10373550, PubMed:15358120, PubMed:21212266, PubMed:20654631. Its transcriptional activity is enhanced by CCND3 and slightly inhibited by CDK4, PubMed:15358120. Important regulator of the cerebral cortex formation, functions in cerebral cortical neuroprogenitor cells to maintain proliferation and to block differentiation into neurons. Must be down-regulated in order for such cells to exit the cycle and differentiate, By similarity. Participates in the pathways by which SHH promotes cerebellar granule neuron progenitor cells proliferation, By similarity. Critical for survival of mature olfactory sensory neurons, OSN, directs expression of OSN-specific genes, By similarity. May be involved in osteogenic differentiation, PubMed:22442021. Promotes cell proliferation and survival by inducing the expression of EGR1 sinergistically with ELK1. Once acetylated by EP300, binds to ARE sequences on target genes promoters, such as BCL2 and EGR1, PubMed:21791614. Plays an anti-apoptotic role through the transcriptional regulation of BCL2, this function seems to be cell type-dependent, By similarity. Cooperates with NR1I3/CAR in the transcriptional activation of CYP2B6 in liver, PubMed:18332083. In hepatic cells, represses CRE-dependent transcription and inhibits proliferation by blocking at G2/M phase, PubMed:22528486, PubMed:18701499. May act as a negative regulator of IL1B transduction pathway in liver, PubMed:24379400. Upon IL1B stimulus, cooperates with NLK to activate the transactivation activity of C/EBP subfamily members, PubMed:25512613. Besides its function of transcription factor, acts as a cofactor of CEBPB to activate CEBPA and promote adipocyte differentiation, PubMed:24216764. Regulates centrosome dynamics in a cell-cycle- and centriole-age-dependent manner. Forms 9-foci symmetrical ring scaffold around the mother centriole to control centrosome function and the interaction between centrioles and pericentriolar material, PubMed:26213385. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:O70191, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q6P788, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10373550, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15358120, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18332083, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18701499, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20654631, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21212266, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21791614, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22442021, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22528486, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24216764, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24379400, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25512613, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26213385}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15358120}. Nucleus {ECO:0000255|PROSITE-ProRule:PRU00978, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15358120, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22528486}. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome {ECO:0000269|PubMed:26213385}. Note=Actively transported to the centrosome and accumulated in the pericentriolar material, PCM during G1 to M phase via a microtubule-dependent mechanism. During late telophase and cytokinesis, translocates from the centrosome to the midbody. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:26213385}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9Y2D1
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cerebellar granule cell precursor proliferation [GO:0021930];
circadian rhythm [GO:0007623];
fat cell differentiation [GO:0045444];
multicellular organism growth [GO:0035264];
negative regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043066];
negative regulation of cell cycle G2/M phase transition [GO:1902750];
negative regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0008285];
negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045892];
olfactory bulb interneuron development [GO:0021891];
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045893];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
post-embryonic development [GO:0009791];
regulation of centrosome cycle [GO:0046605];
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006355];
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0006357]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
chromatin binding [GO:0003682];
kinase binding [GO:0019900];
RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0000977];
RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0000981];
sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0043565];
transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific binding [GO:0001228];
transcription corepressor activity [GO:0003714];
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0003700];
transcription regulatory region DNA binding [GO:0044212];
tubulin binding [GO:0015631]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
centrosome [GO:0005813];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
transcription factor complex [GO:0005667]
Protein-protein interaction116487
Phylogenetic treeQ9Y2D1
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.640233777504471.13333047524478e-068.71063586072884e-06
AZA vs. DISU-0.06434231813797580.8025092035367630.983438610789082
AZA vs. IL7-0.01138020080683080.9555652283939920.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-1.45174863712041.62295265726531e-060.000143929027039702
DISU vs. CD3-1.717190198207024.24918725006052e-063.47354927372084e-05
DISU vs. IL70.04277486556005150.8672366171051510.974537471944736
DISU vs. SAHA-1.384591607480676.15524148472879e-060.000427491448923261
DMSO vs. AZA-0.07935068058113280.6637803100401981
DMSO vs. CD3-1.728884774306461.61784724062031e-071.36389863905679e-06
DMSO vs. DISU-0.01643678983375470.9471945841813850.993012243712903
DMSO vs. IL70.07553939905574440.6845421698266440.936221809419134
DMSO vs. SAHA-1.377868298351069.85279724807775e-078.34221951268426e-05
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.2687605112977460.6666966710849960.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.05224521238505980.7595194190320490.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.647493515582496.27547062315159e-076.4216000477097e-06
SAHA vs. CD3-3.116273209033451.11022302462516e-155.52180230399377e-14
SAHA vs. IL7-1.44245961731258.57553125066524e-073.9652625175622e-05
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.226956 0.66959
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00852 Pseudoephedrine approved unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found
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