Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000174
UniProt IDP18846
Primary gene name(s)ATF1
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameCyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-1
Protein functionThis protein binds the cAMP response element, CRE, consensus: 5'-GTGACGT[AC][AG]-3', a sequence present in many viral and cellular promoters. Binds to the Tax-responsive element, TRE of HTLV-I. Mediates PKA-induced stimulation of CRE-reporter genes. Represses the expression of FTH1 and other antioxidant detoxification genes. Triggers cell proliferation and transformation. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:18794154, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20980392}.
Subcellular locationNucleus.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P18846
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cellular protein complex assembly [GO:0043623];
positive regulation of DNA replication [GO:0045740];
positive regulation of neuron projection development [GO:0010976];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
response to cobalt ion [GO:0032025];
response to organic cyclic compound [GO:0014070]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0000977];
transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific binding [GO:0001228];
transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding [GO:0003705];
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0003700]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
ATF1-ATF4 transcription factor complex [GO:1990590];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction106956
Phylogenetic treeP18846
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.8879327381452290.007133293894493460.0195762938051357
AZA vs. DISU0.1018092303808310.6883003596920350.968313969505284
AZA vs. IL70.1094616810468150.5717482224708550.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.6679085589164060.00725769034954060.0792197134894823
DISU vs. CD3-0.7987527027854670.02851038095206840.0686599147812948
DISU vs. IL7-0.001278860769087220.995960186815060.999957156847617
DISU vs. SAHA-0.7689446681153280.009362410212125030.0992968925453457
DMSO vs. AZA-0.07038283138210970.6776144553718461
DMSO vs. CD3-0.9695408696907560.002662399424376960.0080106403926251
DMSO vs. DISU-0.1738637121111160.477820913219150.900624300571113
DMSO vs. IL70.1869098898116280.302305080483090.78714726655106
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.6042697313466690.01203618178193590.101623134809835
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.2156180884274740.7289976366496020.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1534131918306790.3573190270866060.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.7702382380305430.01714294777397650.0464072650497751
SAHA vs. CD3-1.580908019375651.49699129132763e-058.93218714563994e-05
SAHA vs. IL7-0.781281536234980.001650886128634070.0171379179970034
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.254409 0.0829419
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.792 0.656 0.479 0.41 0.609
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00852 Pseudoephedrine approved unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpr activates 12444143

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04925 Aldosterone synthesis and secretion - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05166 HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05202 Transcriptional misregulation in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)