Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000157
UniProt IDP27540
Primary gene name(s)ARNT
Synonym gene name(s)BHLHE2
Protein nameAryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator
Protein functionRequired for activity of the Ah, dioxin receptor. This protein is required for the ligand-binding subunit to translocate from the cytosol to the nucleus after ligand binding. The complex then initiates transcription of genes involved in the activation of PAH procarcinogens. The heterodimer with HIF1A or EPAS1/HIF2A functions as a transcriptional regulator of the adaptive response to hypoxia.
Subcellular locationNucleus.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P27540
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cell differentiation [GO:0030154];
embryonic placenta development [GO:0001892];
mRNA transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0042789];
positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation [GO:0001938];
positive regulation of erythrocyte differentiation [GO:0045648];
positive regulation of glycolytic process [GO:0045821];
positive regulation of hormone biosynthetic process [GO:0046886];
positive regulation of protein sumoylation [GO:0033235];
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045893];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production [GO:0010575];
positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway [GO:0030949];
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to hypoxia [GO:0061418];
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to oxidative stress [GO:0043619];
response to hypoxia [GO:0001666];
transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006351]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity [GO:0004874];
aryl hydrocarbon receptor binding [GO:0017162];
enhancer binding [GO:0035326];
protein heterodimerization activity [GO:0046982];
transcription coactivator activity [GO:0003713];
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0003700];
transcription factor binding [GO:0008134]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
RNA polymerase II transcription factor complex [GO:0090575]
Protein-protein interaction106898
Phylogenetic treeP27540
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.821359749439370.01333619307054230.0333646099363688
AZA vs. DISU0.1763898669874790.4861245538039980.931429104131977
AZA vs. IL7-0.02612562619628330.8921878854354450.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.09473178615628370.6980979027774310.9150836618274
DISU vs. CD30.9853442383940510.007206465884645570.0220658677117911
DISU vs. IL7-0.2121055453576920.3999856088895220.763636493281906
DISU vs. SAHA-0.07964875035151550.7850731779205010.942025307678334
DMSO vs. AZA0.02684019870762240.8730488555028451
DMSO vs. CD30.8377456696117880.00973009410279890.0243333113643203
DMSO vs. DISU-0.1511321347893220.5360173424857070.92112338311561
DMSO vs. IL7-0.04588887585361870.799056240074440.958905653488471
DMSO vs. SAHA0.06184278877370410.7932836531587990.941776761854946
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.3886725693281340.5336756062328310.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.2178515293165510.1876764627785830.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.8013892987640650.01342147370896350.0379339721011076
SAHA vs. CD30.8925241642493220.0131621013715150.0323088891689548
SAHA vs. IL70.1185859939304950.627496094318920.814788192416521
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.598349 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.859 1.27 1.327 1.054 1.132
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1D7G Model - C=87-145.
1X0O NMR - A=356-470.
2A24 NMR - B=358-465.
2ARN Model - A=335-462.
2B02 X-ray 1.5Å A=354-470.
2HV1 NMR - A/B=356-470.
2K7S NMR - A=356-470.
3F1N X-ray 1.4Å B=356-470.
3F1O X-ray 1.6Å B=356-470.
3F1P X-ray 1.1Å B=356-470.
3H7W X-ray 1.6Å B=356-470.
3H82 X-ray 1.5Å B=356-470.
4EQ1 X-ray 1.6Å A/B=357-464.
4GHI X-ray 1.5Å B=356-470.
4GS9 X-ray 1.7Å B=356-470.
4H6J X-ray 1.5Å B=357-470.
4LPZ X-ray 3.1Å A/B=356-470.
4PKY X-ray 3.2Å A/D=356-470.
4XT2 X-ray 1.7Å B/D=356-470.
5T0T X-ray 2.2Å B=356-467.
5TBM X-ray 1.8Å B=356-467.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
matrix downregulates 26469385

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04066 HIF-1 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05200 Pathways in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05204 Chemical carcinogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05211 Renal cell carcinoma - Homo sapiens (human)