Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000150
UniProt IDP36404
Primary gene name(s)ARL2
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 2
Protein functionSmall GTP-binding protein which cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an active GTP-bound form, and the rate of cycling is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors, GEF and GTPase-activating proteins, GAP. GTP-binding protein that does not act as an allosteric activator of the cholera toxin catalytic subunit. Regulates formation of new microtubules and centrosome integrity. Prevents the TBCD-induced microtubule destruction. Participates in association with TBCD, in the disassembly of the apical junction complexes. Antagonizes the effect of TBCD on epithelial cell detachment and tight and adherens junctions disassembly. Together with ARL2, plays a role in the nuclear translocation, retention and transcriptional activity of STAT3. Component of a regulated secretory pathway involved in Ca(2+-dependent release of acetylcholine. Required for normal progress through the cell cycle. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10831612, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16525022, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18234692, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18588884, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20740604}.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion intermembrane space. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome. Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Note=The complex formed with ARL2BP, ARL2 and SLC25A6 is expressed in mitochondria. The complex formed with ARL2BP, ARL2 and SLC25A4 is expressed in mitochondria, By similarity. Not detected in the Golgi, nucleus and on the mitotic spindle. Centrosome-associated throughout the cell cycle. Not detected to interphase microtubules. {ECO:0000250}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P36404
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
bicellular tight junction assembly [GO:0070830];
cell cycle [GO:0007049];
centrosome organization [GO:0051297];
maintenance of protein location in nucleus [GO:0051457];
negative regulation of GTPase activity [GO:0034260];
positive regulation of cell-substrate adhesion [GO:0010811];
positive regulation of microtubule polymerization [GO:0031116];
regulation of insulin secretion [GO:0050796];
regulation of microtubule polymerization [GO:0031113];
small GTPase mediated signal transduction [GO:0007264];
tubulin complex assembly [GO:0007021]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
GTPase activity [GO:0003924];
GTPase inhibitor activity [GO:0005095];
GTP binding [GO:0005525]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
centrosome [GO:0005813];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
lateral plasma membrane [GO:0016328];
mitochondrial intermembrane space [GO:0005758];
mitochondrial matrix [GO:0005759];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction106895
Phylogenetic treeP36404
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.2079238907484510.5296204429294610.644160693659848
AZA vs. DISU-0.1088073461459170.671221040989490.964028859736782
AZA vs. IL70.202307647602810.3032318285479070.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.07717237573871270.7558080169033380.93385656121319
DISU vs. CD3-0.3282167020870520.3674981218775590.501642846904426
DISU vs. IL70.3010955644900010.2368180831618560.621476593207524
DISU vs. SAHA0.1885588271205270.5210631532303740.836599594524907
DMSO vs. AZA0.03376764447416010.8447686615407511
DMSO vs. CD3-0.1857464138718070.5639864426111960.665963927157099
DMSO vs. DISU0.1405964611437820.568893439523710.929072605378018
DMSO vs. IL70.1760738423665010.337323190015080.807825221816368
DMSO vs. SAHA0.03887275167772320.8707837351384530.967530350359159
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.1368450963626770.8276732034956170.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.02659977833867940.8760484391463310.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.0006410652571183610.9984154686050130.998945659361657
SAHA vs. CD3-0.1535928649611430.6649757561312950.750900127216423
SAHA vs. IL7-0.1267823165218350.6065318311920570.800757902664344
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.460799 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.99 0.864 0.931 0.91 0.862
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
3DOE X-ray 2.2Å A=1-184.
3DOF X-ray 3.3Å A=1-184.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found