Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000141
UniProt IDQ6ZSZ5
Primary gene name(s)ARHGEF18
Synonym gene name(s)KIAA0521
Protein nameRho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 18
Protein functionActs as guanine nucleotide exchange factor, GEF for RhoA GTPases. Its activation induces formation of actin stress fibers. Also act as a GEF for RAC1, inducing production of reactive oxygen species, ROS. Does not act as a GEF for CDC42. The G protein beta-gamma, Gbetagamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins act as activators, explaining the integrated effects of LPA and other G-protein coupled receptor agonists on actin stress fiber formation, cell shape change and ROS production. Required for EPB41L4B-mediated regulation of the circumferential actomyosin belt in epithelial cells, PubMed:22006950. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11085924, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14512443, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15558029, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22006950}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15558029}. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15558029}. Apical cell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22006950}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q6ZSZ5
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
actin cytoskeleton organization [GO:0030036];
positive regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043065];
regulation of cell shape [GO:0008360];
regulation of Rho protein signal transduction [GO:0035023];
regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction [GO:0051056];
small GTPase mediated signal transduction [GO:0007264];
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway [GO:0007179]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity [GO:0005085];
Rho guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity [GO:0005089]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
apical part of cell [GO:0045177];
apical plasma membrane [GO:0016324];
cell junction [GO:0030054];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytoskeleton [GO:0005856];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062]
Protein-protein interaction116950
Phylogenetic treeQ6ZSZ5
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-1.609554438983191.64184859330341e-061.217213084027e-05
AZA vs. DISU-0.3959130623334420.1183644074714880.672488840231307
AZA vs. IL7-0.292974183670.1290683691925880.897328354403451
AZA vs. SAHA-0.9589189388111840.0006246753221053060.0149298224046084
DISU vs. CD31.201540135153940.001092960025587560.0044806307929581
DISU vs. IL70.09399595528905970.7094193790652350.925147623623488
DISU vs. SAHA-0.5620293452042560.05734834439716360.300680434291513
DMSO vs. AZA0.07740381402381870.6449099854442671
DMSO vs. CD31.669447867741773.8170673211102e-072.95499070876286e-06
DMSO vs. DISU0.4697481343933530.05482650830589670.457494728776226
DMSO vs. IL7-0.3621785109327250.04470201636912410.424894638565287
DMSO vs. SAHA-1.041361112060840.0004624670911157480.0102905975088599
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.2283033429166750.7150597543736220.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.2258357785894530.1731699608838370.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.324442501555075.33819467246621e-050.000336241572495124
SAHA vs. CD30.626121310802580.08285287677254350.149743412341756
SAHA vs. IL7-0.6700880669390220.01821321576132620.0945665469641082
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.628485 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.922 0.896 0.879 0.873 0.898
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04530 Tight junction - Homo sapiens (human)