Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000130
UniProt IDP78540
Primary gene name(s)ARG2
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameArginase-2, mitochondrial
Protein functionMay play a role in the regulation of extra-urea cycle arginine metabolism and also in down-regulation of nitric oxide synthesis. Extrahepatic arginase functions to regulate L-arginine bioavailability to NO synthase. Since NO synthase is found in the penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle, the clitoral corpus cavernosum and the vagina, arginase II plays a role in both male and female sexual arousal. It is therefore a potential target for the treatment of male and female sexual arousal disorders. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12859189}.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P78540
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
arginine metabolic process [GO:0006525];
nitric oxide biosynthetic process [GO:0006809];
striated muscle contraction [GO:0006941];
urea cycle [GO:0000050];
ureteric bud development [GO:0001657]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
arginase activity [GO:0004053];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
mitochondrial matrix [GO:0005759];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739]
Protein-protein interaction106879
Phylogenetic treeP78540
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.163730015419620.0005250398892138190.00207755348128923
AZA vs. DISU0.1283995864149080.6241014252766980.960057478314726
AZA vs. IL70.1645671040362670.4199595556870850.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.2131272563982210.4003960396039410.760008329251322
DISU vs. CD3-1.048785816106270.004569698212023350.0150302489304037
DISU vs. IL70.02805014543360950.9139906671429160.982768138885839
DISU vs. SAHA0.08678334219338590.7716475599500470.935749949791371
DMSO vs. AZA-0.02801480141955590.877897012095341
DMSO vs. CD3-1.203991150190510.0002392137539659610.000976892166846626
DMSO vs. DISU-0.1581814848744750.5312349016952740.918454079411213
DMSO vs. IL70.1999667021126410.2959947312053160.782553590480557
DMSO vs. SAHA0.2354064025655990.3359681871790640.689614976348603
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.3756585882793430.5485342789730460.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1958858707306190.2645274619434550.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.9919455905183650.002473810458775930.00922735586367967
SAHA vs. CD3-0.9749613549219760.006737793086667220.0183780166182941
SAHA vs. IL70.04554874835756680.8564442706481660.940142800447892
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.241782 0.0850138
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00125 L-Arginine approved, nutraceutical unknown unknown
DB00129 L-Ornithine approved, nutraceutical unknown unknown
DB03731 S-2-(Boronoethyl)-L-Cysteine experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1PQ3 X-ray 2.7Å A/B/C/D/E/F=24-329.
4HZE X-ray 1.6Å A/B/C=24-329.
4I06 X-ray 1.8Å A/B/C=24-329.
4IE2 X-ray 2.2Å A/B/C=24-329.
4IE3 X-ray 2.3Å A/B/C=24-329.
4IXU X-ray 1.9Å A/B/C=24-329.
4IXV X-ray 2.3Å A/B/C=24-329.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpr downregulates 26116899

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00220 Arginine biosynthesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00330 Arginine and proline metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01230 Biosynthesis of amino acids - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05146 Amoebiasis - Homo sapiens (human)
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