Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000122
UniProt IDQ9HC16
Primary gene name(s)APOBEC3G
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameDNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3G
Protein functionDNA deaminase, cytidine deaminase which acts as an inhibitor of retrovirus replication and retrotransposon mobility via deaminase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Exhibits potent antiviral activity against vif-deficient HIV-1. After the penetration of retroviral nucleocapsids into target cells of infection and the initiation of reverse transcription, it can induce the conversion of cytosine to uracil in the minus-sense single-strand viral DNA, leading to G-to-A hypermutations in the subsequent plus-strand viral DNA. The resultant detrimental levels of mutations in the proviral genome, along with a deamination-independent mechanism that works prior to the proviral integration, together exert efficient antiretroviral effects in infected target cells. Selectively targets single-stranded DNA and does not deaminate double-stranded DNA or single-or double-stranded RNA. Exhibits antiviral activity also against simian immunodeficiency viruses, SIVs, hepatitis B virus, HBV, equine infectious anemia virus, EIAV, xenotropic MuLV-related virus, XMRV and simian foamy virus, SFV. May inhibit the mobility of LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12167863, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12808465, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12808466, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12809610, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12859895, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12970355, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14528300, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14557625, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15031497, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16378963, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16527742, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18288108, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19458006, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20219927, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20335265, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21123384, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21835787, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22791714, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22807680, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22915799, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23097438, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23152537}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasm, P-body. Note=Mainly cytoplasmic. Small amount are found in the nucleus. During HIV-1 infection, virion-encapsidated in absence of HIV-1 VIF.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9HC16
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
base conversion or substitution editing [GO:0016553];
cytidine deamination [GO:0009972];
defense response to virus [GO:0051607];
DNA cytosine deamination [GO:0070383];
innate immune response [GO:0045087];
negative regulation of single stranded viral RNA replication via double stranded DNA intermediate [GO:0045869];
negative regulation of transposition [GO:0010529];
negative regulation of viral genome replication [GO:0045071];
negative regulation of viral process [GO:0048525];
positive regulation of defense response to virus by host [GO:0002230]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
cytidine deaminase activity [GO:0004126];
dCTP deaminase activity [GO:0008829];
deoxycytidine deaminase activity [GO:0047844];
protein homodimerization activity [GO:0042803];
RNA binding [GO:0003723];
zinc ion binding [GO:0008270]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme complex [GO:0030895];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytoplasmic mRNA processing body [GO:0000932];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
intracellular ribonucleoprotein complex [GO:0030529]
Protein-protein interaction121920
Phylogenetic treeQ9HC16
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.591234535782462.0889953529446e-050.000119761650664059
AZA vs. DISU-0.3727689319133980.1438510149635340.718797155225174
AZA vs. IL70.1654412955973470.390795648800860.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-1.044880512236612.53225536270829e-050.0013491211629995
DISU vs. CD3-1.9767625587521.5983385360796e-061.45755324215753e-05
DISU vs. IL70.5283316199303110.03863884444370810.258191746448981
DISU vs. SAHA-0.6691928464983990.02510054799456240.186074942855903
DMSO vs. AZA-0.03850511704287690.8188273954102591
DMSO vs. CD3-1.640085936019726.58996749913765e-063.95528636576483e-05
DMSO vs. DISU0.3328384390655250.1755963058963740.689303550366855
DMSO vs. IL70.2108829718273820.2424477769232680.746659905437849
DMSO vs. SAHA-1.011633730014572.44274679490619e-050.00117391816677528
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1884524567334670.806249227209390.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1660282390334360.3161201203669130.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.420550969802469.07432278973719e-050.000534494987923832
SAHA vs. CD3-2.659164604983792.31363816993735e-104.49890673818785e-09
SAHA vs. IL7-1.211922103326269.93868482623839e-074.49897102314467e-05
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
-0.4128 0.03192

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
1.8 0.000132207 1.4 0.008780739 1.5 0.007499183
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.38387 0.00864647
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.087 0.008

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
204205_at 1.57 No upregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2JYW NMR - A=198-384.
2KBO NMR - A=193-384.
2KEM NMR - A=191-384.
3E1U X-ray 2.3Å A=197-380.
3IQS X-ray 2.3Å A=197-380.
3IR2 X-ray 2.2Å A/B=191-384.
3V4J X-ray 2.0Å A/B=191-384.
3V4K X-ray 1.3Å A/B=191-380.
4ROV X-ray 1.8Å A/B=193-384.
4ROW X-ray 1.7Å A=193-384.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Pr55(Gag) inhibited by 18987139
19487726
1982690219494012
20668078
21752914
21972557
Vpr degrades 25200749
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor upregulates 25008917
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 mutation increased by 26055363
nucleocapsid interacts with 15159405
15215254
15358144
15479826
15479846
17428847
18572219
18639915
19345973
19487726
19826902
24198285
2559013115464836
15464836
15479826
15479846
17020885
17344295
17631688
17959647
19487726
19826902
2123917617670826
18298807
19487726
19494012
1982690217942420
Pr55(Gag) co-localizes with 21752914
Vif inhibited by 18809921
19008196
19038776
20096141
2017445418987139
19057663
20096141
2017445425330146
integrase binds 26055363
Vif disrupts 20219919
20299747
22347227
24390320
2542487820335268
2234722720592083
22347227
24810617
Pr55(Gag) interacts with 15159405
15215254
15358144
15479826
15479846
17020885
17428847
18639915
19345973
19487726
19826902
21239176
23926332
24198285
25038404
2559013123831493
Vif downregulates 17727729
19008196
19038776
20096141
2017445417916373
18366335
19008196
19038776
20096141
2017445421480314
21874023
21934670
2320251922190036
22190037
22205746
23988114
24352440
24418540
24522927
25124760
25206352
25275135
25408426
2591214024245672
Pr55(Gag) binds 18639915
19487726
19826902
21972557
nucleocapsid inhibited by 19494012
Pr55(Gag) incorporates 17126871
19345973
23926332
24248339
Vif binds 14672928
18366335
19004939
19008196
19038776
19149995
19487726
19669862
19826902
20096141
20174454
22190036
22347227
23545135
2357649715156567
18976920
19008196
19038776
19149995
19487726
19669862
19826902
19837465
20012521
20096141
20174454
22347227
22553496
2354513515537645
19008196
19038776
19837465
20012521
20096141
20174454
2234722715611076
18976920
19008196
19038776
19149995
19487726
19669862
19826902
19837465
20012521
20096141
20174454
22347227
22553496
2354513517267497
19008196
19036809
19038776
19149995
19487726
19669862
19826902
19837465
20012521
20015971
20096141
20174454
21279453
21752914
22203821
2234722717522211
19008196
19038776
19837465
20012521
20096141
20174454
21752914
22347227
2436127517522216
17898068
18619467
19008196
19036809
19038776
19149995
19487726
19669862
19826902
19837465
19939923
20012521
20096141
20174454
20219919
21279453
22347227
2354513517898068
19008196
19038776
19149995
19487726
19669862
19826902
20096141
20174454
2021991918499212
19008196
19038776
19837465
20012521
20096141
20174454
20538015
22347227
2357649718836454
19008196
19038776
20096141
2017445419036809
19837465
20012521
20096141
20174454
22203821
2234722719109396
19837465
20096141
20174454
2234722719128510
19837465
2017445425984970
26105074
integrase interacts with 17428847
17428847
22301159
Vpr induces ubiquitination of 24899191
p6 interacts with 15464836
Vif inhibits 12859895
14527406
14528300
14528301
14557625
14614829
14747572
15080177
15116720
15168739
15177194
15245742
15353294
15383144
15578976
16250885
16354571
16414984
16460778
16678488
16822376
17020885
17135358
17303427
17522211
17824250
17825339
18262674
18304004
18338854
18366335
18391217
18499212
18501607
18541215
18577210
18603011
18806783
18809921
18976920
19004939
19008196
19038776
19050398
19149995
19211937
19344514
19487726
19535447
19535450
19649317
19669862
19694548
19826902
19837465
19887642
20096141
20174454
20363737
20538015
20571604
20638642
20939174
21147461
21147467
21152581
21228271
21239176
21345952
21741003
21763507
22347227
22509177
22553496
22555953
22728817
22787460
22894923
22912627
23043100
23189135
23255806
23300442
23316055
23430691
23707381
23724012
23831493
24089548
24158820
24245672
24246762
24851906
24986077
25127418
25169827
25206352
2530413514564014
14747572
15080177
15116720
15168739
15177194
15245742
15353294
15383144
15578976
16250885
16303161
16678488
16822376
17303427
18262674
18304004
18326044
18338854
18391217
18499212
18541215
18577210
18639915
18976920
19008196
19038776
19149577
19149995
19487726
19669862
19694548
19826902
19837465
20012521
20096141
20174454
20463065
20538015
20571604
21741003
22347227
22379088
22509177
22553496
22728817
23043100
23202519
23621690
25206352
25901786
2591214014747572
19008196
19038776
19837465
20012521
20096141
20174454
2234722716418394
18827027
19008196
19038776
20096141
20174454
21734563
2250917716501124
17049578
18976920
19008196
19038776
19149995
19487726
19669862
19826902
19837465
20012521
20096141
20174454
2234722716699599
16822376
17338854
18304004
18326044
18366335
18577210
18976920
19008196
19038776
19149995
19487726
19669862
19826902
19837465
20012521
20096141
20174454
20538015
22190036
22190037
22347227
22509177
2304310017126871
19008196
19038776
20096141
2017445418604271
19008196
19038776
20096141
2017445419344514
1964931719357165
20219919
22347227
2542487820642434
20833716
21763507
22013041
2285568625717111
25901786
26460502
9811770
9846577
12167863
12719574
12750511
12808465
12808466
12809610
12830140
12840737
12859895
12914693
12920286
12970355
14527406
14528300
14528301
14557625
14564014
14614829
14966139
14978281
14999100
15054139
15080177
15116720
15168739
15177194
15245742
15353294
15373943
15383144
15578976
16250885
16354571
16414984
16501124
16631224
16641889
16678488
16822376
16940537
17023652
17067930
17135358
17303427
17338854
17727729
17825339
17898068
17916373
17928335
18036235
18184715
18262674
18304004
18366335
18391217
18495196
18501607
18541215
18577210
18603011
18639915
18675436
18789977
18806783
18809921
18819469
18827027
18836454
18846074
18971252
18976462
18976920
18987139
19004939
19008196
19020832
19038776
19088851
19149577
19149995
19211937
19216784
19304304
19344514
19401538
19487726
19535447
19535450
19649317
19669862
19694548
19717177
19776130
19826902
19837465
19841153
19887642
19944180
20012521
20018238
20096141
20147392
20174454
20219919
20299747
20335268
20363737
20463080
20538015
20571604
20592068
20592083
20610708
20624919
20638642
20642434
20686027
20702622
20712566
20833716
20939174
21147461
21147467
21152581
21182427
21228271
21239176
21345952
21373976
21489586
21734563
21734566
21741003
21752914
21763507
21835787
21971250
21972557
21994560
22013041
22190036
22190037
22264516
22286874
22291694
22347227
22379088
22421880
22509177
22553496
22720156
22728817
22787460
22912627
22915799
23028129
23043100
23043103
23097438
23175372
23189135
23202519
23330719
23428096
23430691
23545135
23621690
23689841
23724012
23787464
23825473
23870316
24139399
24158820
24189052
24246762
24361275
24400003
24418547
24503066
24657093
24772904
24810617
24986077
25206352
25213124
25304135
25352838
25489169
25579575
25590131
25717111
25807049
25827531
25847768
25901786
Gag-Pol interacts with 22970171
22970171
Vif packages 26055363
Vif interacts with 14966139
14978281
14999100
15054139
15611076
17049578
17267497
19008196
19038776
19149577
19216784
20012521
20096141
20174454
22347227
22509177
22553496
23316055
23318957
23576497
23986590
2527513518023836
18304004
18366335
18577210
19004943
19008196
19038776
19149995
19487726
19669862
19826902
19837465
20012521
20096141
20174454
20538015
21239176
21370050
2234722718036235
19008196
19038776
20096141
20174454
2234722718414671
19008196
19038776
20096141
2017445418619467
19008196
19038776
19149995
19487726
19669862
19826902
19837465
19939923
20012521
20096141
20174454
2234722718806783
18846074
19008196
19038776
20096141
20174454
21239176
22555953
23428096
25489169
2557957519944180
20096141
20174454
2093917420363737
20939174
2123917620624919
21182427
21393191
21489586
22190037
25206352
2591214022970171
22970171
2546153623080486
23097438
23255806
23316055
23576497
24352440
24986077
25275135
25724652
25901786
26105074
26241003
Vif antagonizes 26385832
nucleocapsid associates with 17344295
17631688
17959647
19345973
21972557
reverse transcriptase inhibited by 16971427
17459442
19487726
19826902
21994586
2199460817942420
19487726
19826902
21994608
2371756523717565
24859335
integrase complexes with 17291161
Vif induces ubiquitination of 20147392
2489919125901786
Vpu inhibits 22647704
nucleocapsid incorporates 17126871
1788144317881443
17881443
17959647
19487726
19826902
21972557
reverse transcriptase interacts with 18448538
22301159
2605536322695298
Pr55(Gag) associates with 17344295
19345973
Vpr upregulates 18414697
20012529
22274659
reverse transcriptase activates 17291161
Vif complexes with 26105074
nucleocapsid complexes with 17291161
17881443
18298807
19487726
1982690218456846
reverse transcriptase binds 22301159
26055363
Vif degrades 14527406
14528300
14528301
14564014
14614829
14672928
15537645
16354571
16460778
16940537
17331040
17586316
17916373
18366335
18414671
18541215
19008196
19038776
19109396
19149577
19149995
19487726
19669862
19826902
19837465
19841153
19939923
20012521
20096141
20174454
20538015
21149631
22017399
22205746
22218868
22346743
22347227
22553496
23988114
24899191
25213124
25275135
25724652
2591214017049578
17869271
19008196
19038776
19149995
19487726
19669862
19826902
19837465
20012521
20096141
20174454
20219919
20538015
22347227
22369580
2542487817135358
19008196
19038776
19837465
20096141
20174454
2234722718326044
19008196
19038776
20096141
20147392
20174454
20538015
22347227
2250917718603011
18976920
19008196
19038776
19535447
19535450
20012521
20096141
20174454
2234722718680593
19008196
19038776
20096141
2017445419004939
19837465
20096141
20174454
2053801519050398
19837465
2017445419088851
20219919
2234722719535447
19535450
19837465
20096141
20174454
2234722719535447
19535450
20096141
20174454
20219919
2234722719887642
20096141
2331895721228271
21345952
22205746
22725134
23175372
2452292722379088
22725134
22894923
23175372
2435244023300442
23300442
23300442
2591214023545135
23707381
23831493
23986590
24390320
24390335
24418540
2481061724522927
24810617
25847768
25912140

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found
Menu