Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000121
UniProt IDQ9NRW3
Primary gene name(s)APOBEC3C
Synonym gene name(s)APOBEC1L, PBI
Protein nameDNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3C
Protein functionDNA deaminase, cytidine deaminase which acts as an inhibitor of retrovirus replication and retrotransposon mobility via deaminase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. After the penetration of retroviral nucleocapsids into target cells of infection and the initiation of reverse transcription, it can induce the conversion of cytosine to uracil in the minus-sense single-strand viral DNA, leading to G-to-A hypermutations in the subsequent plus-strand viral DNA. The resultant detrimental levels of mutations in the proviral genome, along with a deamination-independent mechanism that works prior to the proviral integration, together exert efficient antiretroviral effects in infected target cells. Selectively targets single-stranded DNA and does not deaminate double-stranded DNA or single-or double-stranded RNA. Exhibits antiviral activity against simian immunodeficiency virus, SIV, hepatitis B virus, HBV, herpes simplex virus 1, HHV-1 and Epstein-Barr virus, EBV and may inhibit the mobility of LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons. May also play a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression through the process of active DNA demethylation. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12859895, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15466872, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16527742, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20062055, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21496894, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21632763}.
Subcellular locationNucleus. Cytoplasm.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9NRW3
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cytidine deamination [GO:0009972];
defense response to virus [GO:0051607];
DNA demethylation [GO:0080111];
innate immune response [GO:0045087];
negative regulation of transposition [GO:0010529];
negative regulation of viral genome replication [GO:0045071]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen, but not peptide bonds, in cyclic amidines [GO:0016814];
poly(A RNA binding [GO:0044822];
zinc ion binding [GO:0008270]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction118162
Phylogenetic treeQ9NRW3
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.3102846427944250.3460774873453830.466554551813025
AZA vs. DISU-0.5125160497339640.04439957068901910.47874043531207
AZA vs. IL7-0.04563368466942230.8257969174757020.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-1.148797672437672.34685159882231e-050.00128175510871911
DISU vs. CD3-0.8345650537527070.02220672040131820.0561086328074876
DISU vs. IL70.4568488584963240.07426870912927550.362217049726699
DISU vs. SAHA-0.6338731056958260.03369742029531530.221442893214524
DMSO vs. AZA-0.2571076178984170.1279149281883841
DMSO vs. CD3-0.5777485957095670.07276006042957390.131588272553605
DMSO vs. DISU0.254077017549150.3003601852513450.807887568985919
DMSO vs. IL70.2182096061469990.2473806445753850.750617734502713
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.8972720394744030.0004242324451230180.00967262810960516
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.2751576656893910.6589043299711680.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1324491236771410.4262793657117420.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.3504505196719680.2837105038540980.420199314591021
SAHA vs. CD3-1.482500064289375.5637276199616e-050.000285188351132045
SAHA vs. IL7-1.105026492213350.00021962766005390.0035907454963693
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.0832486 0.618374
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.992 0.451 0.06 0.018 1.066
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
209584_x_at 1.78 No upregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
3VM8 X-ray 3.0Å A/B=1-190.
3VOW X-ray 2.1Å A/B=1-190.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found